By Tomoya Arai (auth.), Dr. Burkhard Beckhoff, Dr. habil. Birgit Kanngießer, Professor Dr. Norbert Langhoff, Dr. sc. nat. Reiner Wedell, Dr. sc. nat. Helmut Wolff (eds.)
X-Ray Fluorescence research (XRF) is a competent multi-elemental and nondestructive analytical process wide-spread in learn and commercial functions. This sensible guide presents self-contained modules that includes XRF instrumentation, quantification equipment, and many of the present purposes. The extensive spectrum of issues is because of the efforts of a big variety of authors from numerous sorts of associations corresponding to universities, study institutes, and corporations. The e-book provides a survey of the theoretical basics, analytical instrumentation, software program for information processing, quite a few excitation regimes together with gracing incidents and microfocus measurements, quantitative research, purposes in regimen and micro research, mineralogy, biology, medication, legal investigations, archeology, metallurgy, abrasion, microelectronics, environmental air and water research. It supplies the fundamental wisdom in this process, details on analytical gear and publications the reader to a few of the functions. This sensible instruction manual is meant as a source for graduate scholars, learn scientists, and business users
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Additional info for Handbook of Practical X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis
They are compact, low cost, continuously radiating at high constancy, independent on surrounding conditions and do not need any power supply. These advantages originated many engineering applications in XRF devices, in particular in portable instruments. The major problem is their radiation hazard potential leading to very stringent safety conditions making these sources quite unpopular now. But they are still irreplaceable in many industrial applications. In radioactive radiation sources the decay products are used for direct excitation of the studied samples.
Huang TC, Fung A, White RL, Recent measurements of long wavelength X-rays using synthetic multilayers. X-ray Spectrom 18, 53–56 (1989) 53. Martins E, Urch DS, Problems in use of multilayers for soft X-ray spectroscopy and analysis: A comparison of theoretically and experimentally determined refraction eﬀects. Adv X-ray Anal 35, 1069–1078 (1992) 54. Huang TC, Thin ﬁlm characterization by X-ray ﬂuorescence. X-ray Spectrom 20, 29–33 (1991) 55. Arai T, An X-ray ﬂuorescent spectrometer for the measurement of thin layered materials on silicon wafers.
Anal Chem 33, 589–592 (1961) 88. Bain EC, Functions of the alloying elements in steel, U S Steel Corporations, Pittsburgh PA, USA (1945) 89. Iwasaki K, Hiyoshi K, XRF analysis of bronze castings after recasting. Bunseki Kagaku 37, 152–156 (1988) [in Japanese] 90. Arai T, Quantitative determination of lead in lead-free cutting steels. 1 Introduction N. Langhoﬀ and A. 2 MeV) overlapping to some extent the region of γ-rays (Fig. 1). Electromagnetic radiation above 1 MeV generated by nuclear processes is usually called γ-radiation while the radiation below 80 nm wavelength, generated by electrons slowed down in the outer ﬁeld of an atomic nucleus or by changes of bound states of electrons in the electronic shell of an atom, is called x-radiation.