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By Alice M Roberts

Bargains an entire evaluation of the improvement, shape, functionality, and problems of the human physique, from muscle constitution and task to motor pathways in the brain.

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The eleventh and twelfth ribs are short and do not join any other ribs—they are sometimes referred to as free or floating ribs. SKELETAL SYSTEM 038 First rib Third rib Fifth rib Seventh rib Ninth rib Tenth rib Eleventh rib With your fingers tracing down the edge of the ribcage, you may be able to feel the end of the eleventh rib in your side Twelfth rib The twelfth rib is even shorter than the eleventh, and tucked underneath muscles, so it cannot be felt. Unlike most ribs, the twelfth has no costal groove 039 C7 (seventh cervical vertebra) THORAX Costal groove POSTERIOR (BACK) There are cartilaginous joints between the vertebrae at the back of the thorax, and between the parts of the sternum at the front.

Comparing the pelvic bones of a man and a woman, there are obvious differences between the two. The shape of the ring formed by the sacrum and the two pelvic bones —the pelvic brim—tends to be a wide oval in the woman and much narrower and heart-shaped in a man. The subpubic angle, underneath the joint between the two pubic bones, is much narrower in a man than it is in with a woman. As with the rest of the skeleton, the pelvic bone also tends to be more chunky or robust in a man, with more obvious ridges where muscles attach.

Lower down, the sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments, stretching from the sacrum and coccyx to the ilium, provide additional support and stability. Iliac crest Gluteal surface of ilium The gluteal muscles attach to the pelvis here Posterior superior iliac spine This is the back end of the iliac crest Sacroiliac joint Sacrum Body of pubis The wide, flat portion of the pubic bone Ischial spine This projection from the ischium forms the attachment point for the sacrospinous ligament of the pelvis Greater trochanter Gluteal muscles attach here Coccyx Lesser trochanter Attachment point for the psoas muscle Femur 045 ABDOMEN AND PELVIS Twelfth rib Lumbar vertebrae Five vertebrae make up the lumbar spine Lumbosacral joint Where the fifth lumbar vertebra meets the sacrum Posterior sacral foramina Posterior branches of the sacral spinal nerves pass through these holes Superior pubic ramus This extension of the pubic bone is named after the Latin for branch Obturator foramen Ischiopubic ramus Ischial tuberosity (POSTERIOR) BACK Sacral promontory The upper margin of the sacrum projects forward less in the female SKELETAL SYSTEM 046 Iliiac crest Sacroiliac joint Smaller in the female pelvis Greater sciatic notch Superior pubic ramus Ischiopubic ramus Thinner in the female pelvis PELVIS Pubic symphysis FEMALE PELVIS ANTERIOR (FRONT) Subpubic angle Much wider in the female pelvis The bony pelvis is the part of the skeleton that is most different between the sexes, because the pelvis in the female has to accommodate the birth canal, unlike the male pelvis.

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