By Anthony J. F. Griffiths
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Additional info for Introduction to Genetic Analysis, 9th Edition
He found (apparently unexpectedly) that there were in fact two genetically distinct subclasses. In this case, he was working with the two phenotypes of seed color. In peas, the color of the seed is determined by the genetic constitution of the seed itself, not by the maternal parent as in some plant species. This autonomy is convenient because the investigator can treat each pea as an individual and can observe its phenotype directly without having to grow a plant from it, as must be done for flower color.
The cross between these two lines produced dihybrid F1 seeds of genotype Y/y и R/r, which he discovered were yellow and round. This result showed that the dominance of Y over y and R over r was unaffected by the condition of the other gene pair in the Y/y и R/r dihybrid. Next Mendel made the dihybrid cross by selfing the dihybrid F1 to obtain the F2 generation. 1 Autosomal inheritance as shown in Figure 2-10. This rather unexpected 9 : 3 : 3 : 1 ratio seems a lot more complex than the simple 3 : 1 ratios of the monohybrid crosses.
Random fertilization. The union of one gamete from each parent to form the first cell (zygote) of a new progeny individual is random — that is, gametes combine without regard to which allele is carried. Sperm produced Overall F2 ratio 1 2 1 2 A 1 2 a 1 2 A 1 4 A /A 1 4 A /a a 1 4 A /a 1 4 a /a Point 5 1 A /A : 2 A / a : 1 a /a Figure 2-7 Mendel’s explanation of the 1 : 2 : 1 ratio. Mendel’s model of the hereditary determinants of a character difference in the P, F1, and F2 generations explains the 1 : 2 : 1 ratio.