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Additional resources for Introduction to High-Temperature Superconductivity
And H. London 12 : Since current flows unimpeded within a superconductor, let there be circulating currents inside the superconductor which set up a magnetic field that exactly cancels the magnetic field being applied externally. The form required for such a circulating current turns out to be surprisingly simple; we follow Kittel’s presentation7 here. 6) above, this yields The only constant solution inside the superconductor must be B = 0, which is another way of saying that magnetic fields are excluded.
Whenever M is a single-valued function of H, the material will conserve, not dissipate, magnetic energy when H is cycled. On the other hand, when M is not a single-valued function of H, the material (iron or superconductor) will heat up when H is cycled. Just as magnet iron is called hard when it has a significant hysteresis loop, so a superconductor is called hard when it has a significant hysteresis loop. In superconductors, hysteresis (with concomitant irreversibility) arises from flux pinning.
When compared with independent measurements of the agreement is excellent. The Meissner effect is a very important characteristic of superconductors. Among the consequences of its linkage to the free energy of the superconductor are the following facts: (a) the superconducting state is more ordered than the normal state; (b) only a small fraction of the electrons in a solid need participate in superconductivity; (c) the phase transition must be of second order; that is, there is no latent heat of transition in the absence of any applied magnetic field; and (d) superconductivity involves excitations across an energy gap.