By Adrian Bradbrook; Rosemary Lyster; Richard Ottinger; Wang Xi
As modern international politics demonstrates, power assets and new release are an important matters dealing with the overseas group. As learn on strength legislations, on the overseas, local, and nationwide point is in its infancy, the insights supplied by means of the participants to this quantity are an important addition to the field.
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Extra info for IUCN Academy of Environmental Law Research Studies
2 Energy use versus GNP. Source: World Development Indicators, World Bank, 1999 Moreover, some countries with the same GNP/capita can have very different energy consumption per capita, which is the case, for example, in Russia, China, and Morocco. Their GNP/capita is approximately the same but energy consumption in Russia is four times higher than in China and ﬁfteen times higher than in Morocco. 2, as far as the developing countries are concerned, is that the horizontal axis considers only commercial energy, which is the fraction of total energy consumption that can be quantiﬁed, since by deﬁnition it involves monetary transactions.
A linear relationship between energy consumption/capita and GDP/capita could be expected since higher income means more appliances, automobiles, larger homes, more travel, and many other activities but empirical evidence shows that is not the case. Clearly, there are many countries that do not ﬁt into a linear relationship. 1 Noncommercial energy in Africa Country 1973 1985 Uganda Malawi Guinea-Bissau Gambia ˆ Guinea Burundi Mali Burkina Faso 83% 87% 72% 89% 69% 97% 90% 96% 92% 94% 67% 78% 72% 95% 88% 92% Sources: World Resources, World Resources Institute 1998.
It seems, however, that we come back to the relations between environmental policy and law. Earlier we recalled that policy measures are necessarily linked with law. At the highest level, law, as the expression of the common concern of a community, has to determine the values to be protected and, after deﬁning and adopting the policies that serve that objective, needs to fulﬁll the proposed tasks. Almost every paragraph of the Implementation Plan contains the word “policy,” which means that in reality its implementation involves legal measures.