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By Antonio Rodriguez-Moreno, Talvinder S. Sihra

This quantity seriously examines the practical activities of the kainate‑type glutamate receptors (KARs). Following on from the bigger physique of labor at the NMDA‑ and AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs), reports with KARs have constantly thrown up exceptions to common ideas approximately synaptic modulation. individuals herein supply an perception to the idiosyncracies that now nearly typify the KAR box. The attention-grabbing insights supplied during this quantity serve to inspire looking out mechanistic questions.

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GABA: a pioneer transmitter that excites immature neurons and generates primitive oscillations. Physiol Rev 2007; 87:1215-1284. 95. Voronin LL, Cherubini E. ‘Deaf, mute and whispering’ silent synapses: their role in synaptic plasticity. J Physiol 2004; 557(Pt 1):3-12. 96. Durand GM, Kovalchuk Y, Konnerth A. Long-term potentiation and functional synapse induction in developing hippocampus. Nature 1996; 381:71-75. 97. Danbolt NC. Glutamate uptake. Prog Neurobiol 2001; 65:1-105. 98. Rozas JL, Paternain AV, Lerma J.

49 In a study aimed at elucidating the motility of axonal filopodia and dendritic spines during postnatal development, a process thought to be involved in synapse formation and rearrangement, it was demonstrated that synaptic activation of KARs enhances motility at mossy fiber axons in younger hippocampal slice culture but inhibits it in more mature slices,50 suggesting a key role for KARs for establishing synaptic contacts and for stabilizing newly formed ones. More extensive studies relate to the functional role that KARs exert on network activity in the immature hippocampus.

Jaffe DB, Gutiérrez R. Mossy fiber synaptic transmission: communication from the dentate gyrus to area CA3. Prog Brain Res 2007; 163:109-132 81. Schwarzer C, Sperk G. Hippocampal granule cells express glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 after limbic seizures in the rat. Neuroscience 1995; 69:705-709. 82. Sloviter RS, Dichter MA, Rachinsky TL et al. Basal expression and induction of glutamate decarboxylase and GABA in excitatory granule cells of the rat and monkey hippocampal dentate gyrus. J Comp Neurol 1996; 373:593-618.

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