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8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 31 may do so, and, when it does, ‘now’ will correspond to a particular type of individual concept. See the discussion of indexicals in Chapter 4. Whether the truth-conditionalist has to take this position has been the subject of a certain amount of debate recently. Some, such as Cappelen and Lepore (2005), argue that it’s possible to accept that pragmatic inference plays a central role in, for instance, assigning reference to indexicals, without thereby undermining the truth-conditional project.

The importance of speaker intuition lies at the heart of the radical pragmatics/minimal semantics face-off. In broad terms, the difference is this: the radical pragmatist takes intuitions on what is said by an utterance at more or less face value, whereas the minimal semanticist views such intuitions with deep suspicion. The minimal semanticist has a problem however: suspicious as she may be about speaker intuitions, she can’t do away with them entirely on pain of sacrificing any claim her theory might have to empirical significance.

On this view, the output of the language module is standardly (if not invariably) sub-propositional, viewed as something like a proposition schema. This schema will provide just one type of input to the inferential processes involved in forming and confirming hypotheses concerning speaker intentions. Over the last few years, something of an industry has grown up in defending truth-based approaches to meaning against this kind of contextualism. 12 Firstly, is there a substantive disagreement here?

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