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By A. Milne-Smith

This paintings is the 1st to review the gentlemen's golf equipment that have been a tremendous function of the past due Victorian panorama, and the 1st to find the key heritage of clubmen and their global, putting them at centre level, detailing how clubland dramatically formed nineteenth and early 20th-century principles approximately gender, power, classification, and the town.

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Additional resources for London Clubland: A Cultural History of Gender and Class in Late Victorian Britain

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85 Clubland remained a distinctly masculine space throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The elite status of members was equally important. While no club was open to the landed aristocracy alone, the men who gained access to the West End clubs were prominent in terms of pedigree, wealth, business, or talent. By the nineteenth century, clubs ref lected the diversity that was by then accepted in London’s high society. 86 The Leading Men of London, which lists 469 biographies of men at the top of their professions, gives a sense of the diversity of clubmen.

25 The ideal club was a delicately balanced mixture of exclusivity and democracy. 26 This equality extended even to the royal family. 28 Once a member of a club, one enjoyed the same rights and privileges as any other member. The generally emulative behavior of the nouveaux riches enhanced the popularity of gentlemen’s clubs in the late nineteenth century. 29 At mid-century, club membership was a luxury for working businessmen, no matter how wealthy. 30 Rising men were no longer simply content to remain in the world of the City, they wanted to conquer the West End as well.

An American author, while perhaps overstating, captures the importance of clubland in England at the turn of the century: . . 20 The realities of the late nineteenth century meant that many titles were recent and positions could be bought; thus neither guaranteed social acceptance alone. Thus, membership in the right club could be an important ref lection of one’s rightful position as a gentleman. Clubs were elite spaces. Many members were part of the aristocracy or gentry, and yet, just as in “Society,” the lower boundaries of clubland were forgiving and their membership lists were broader than any guide to the peerage or aristocracy.

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