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By John R. Helliwell

This hugely illustrated monograph presents a finished research of the constitution and serve as of proteins, nucleic acids and viruses utilizing synchrotron radiation and crystallography. Synchrotron radiation is extreme, polychromatic and finely collimated, and is very potent for probing the constitution of macromolecules. it is a fast-expanding box, and this well timed monograph provides a whole advent to the strategy and its makes use of. starting with chapters at the basics of macromolecular crystallography and macromolecular constitution, the booklet is going directly to evaluate the assets and houses of synchrotron radiation, instrumentation and knowledge assortment. There are chapters at the Laue strategy, on diffuse X-ray scattering and on variable wavelength dispersion tools. The publication concludes with an outline and survey of purposes together with experiences at excessive solution, using small crystals, the examine of enormous unit cells, and time-resolved crystallography (particularly of enzymes). Appendices are supplied which current crucial details for the synchrotron consumer in addition to information regarding synchrotron amenities at present to be had. a close bibliography and reference part completes the quantity. Many tables, diagrams and pictures are integrated.

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21 Fundamentals of macromolecular crystallography 22 accompanies crystal growth in gravitational fields (Kroes and Reiss 1984; Pusey, Witherow and Naumann 1988). In addition, sedimentation of growing crystals, which can interfere with the formation of single crystals, is eliminated in the absence of gravity. g. 3 A in microgravity (DeLucas et al 1989)). It is thought that because protein crystals are relatively weakly bonded, with water bridges playing predominant roles, molecular-packing patterns may be more regular in the absence of convective turbulence.

In this range the protein crystal absorption is virtually eliminated for a typical crystal <1 mm in dimension. Sometimes it is not possible to make heavy atom derivatives owing to the chemical nature of a specific protein or the particular crystal form. Many proteins contain an essential metal atom or alternatively selenium can be incorporated into a protein. Similarly bromine can be incorporated into a nucleotide. In all these cases data can be collected at multiple wavelengths using SR and this allows phases to be determined.

Tetragonal crystals of trypanothione reductase. 5A, a = ^ = y = 9 0 ° . Typical largest dimension ~ l m m . Photograph kindly provided by W. N. Hunter with permission. 5). 8A, a = £ = 9 0 ° , y=120°. From Schlichting et al (1989) with the permission of the authors. Crystallisation, crystals and crystal perfection, symmetry 17 (vii) (vii) Rhombohedral crystal of human PNP. 2 A, The a=P=y=923°. 2(1) A, a=£=90°, y=120°. 7 mm. Photograph kindly provided by Dr S. Ealick with permission. (ix) (viii) Hexagonal crystals of Eschehchia coli PNP.

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