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By Peter Ehlers

This quantity collects a couple of essays and articles from specialists in a variety of fields hooked up to marine environmental matters. those essays have been first awarded on the XXVIII Pacem in Maribus convention held in December 2000, on the foreign Tribunal of the legislations of the ocean in Hamburg, Germany. the aim of the convention used to be to reinforce understanding of the ecu public, governments, the personal zone and academia concerning the significance of liable ocean and coastal administration in keeping with ocean technology. Reflecting the cutting edge interdisciplinary method of the convention, those quantity teams participants from major biologists, political scientists, geographers, and jurists in keeping with particular nearby relevance and never alongside strict disciplinary strains. This method permits the specialists to regard marine concerns referring to areas similar to the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, or the Black Sea in a finished demeanour.

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P. 39 In both proclamations, the littoral state extended its limited jurisdiction to areas of the high seas close to its coasts, without any claim to an extension of territorial waters, and specifically declared unaffected the high seas character of the areas and the right to free and unimpeded navigation in those waters. In spite of this disclaimer, the Truman Proclamations were certainly novel claims that modified, if not grossly violated, the freedom of the seas doctrine. The United States' proclamations led to numerous claims by other states not only for continental shelf jurisdiction but also for protection of their fisheries.

As the Dutch defeated the Portuguese and seized the profitable trade of the Spice Islands, they sought to create their own monopoly. Grotius conveniently forgot the freedom of the seas principle he had propounded with such fervour and went to England with a Dutch delegation four years later in 1613 to argue in favour of a Dutch monopoly of trade with the Spice Islands. 29 Successive attempts by each European state to demand freedom of the lucrative spice trade of the East Indies, and later attempts by each of them to try to create a monopoly for itself, along with a similar game being played in the Atlantic, led to a spate of books by numerous scholars in Europe.

In 1970, it unanimously adopted a Declaration of Principles Governing the Seabed and Ocean Floor. "49 Although the maritime powers sometimes denied the legal force of these declarations of the General Assembly, there was clear indication that the new majority had started asserting itself. At the third UN Conference, organized to regulate new uses of the sea for the vastly extended international society, the new states were determined to play a more vigorous role. Over the objections of "old guards" and defenders of the traditional law, who preferred a conference only for formulation of law for the exploitation of the seabed beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, these states wanted a comprehensive conference to review the whole international law of the sea.

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