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By Aleksandr Nikolaevich Annenkov, Yurii Sergeevich Kuz'minov

 A specified ebook describing the develoment of structures for mass creation of lead tungstate crystals for high-energy physics experiments at CERN, Geneva. The houses of the crystals, features of progress apparatus and, specifically, qc of defined are defined intimately. The publication should be of substantial curiosity to crystal development specialists and scientists operating within the region of high-energy physics.

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Extra resources for Mass growth of large PWO4 single crystals for particle detection in high-energy physics experiments at CERN

Sample text

This is indicated by the shift (Fig. , in buildup of defects in crystals. The buildup of defects in the crystals in successive crystallisation processes is indicated by the intensification of the TSL at T >100 K (Fig. 11). The peaks thermally activated at temperatures 330 and 400 K above room temperature correspond to the electronic centres with E TA = 580 and 700 meV, respectively. It should be mentioned that the calculated decay time of the electronic centre with E TA = 580 meV at room temperature is in good agreement with experimental data [4852].

25% X 0 for the second range. Scintillation kinetics Scintillation kinetics should satisfy the following criterion: the ratio of the light yield measured for the signal integration time of 100 and 1000 ns should be greater than 90%. 5% of the amplitude of the peak in irradiation with g-quanta with the energy from a Co 60 source at a counting rate of 1 MHz. Radiation hardness Induced absorption This parameter was measured at a wavelength of 420 nm in lateral irradiation from a Co 60 source at a power of the absorbed dose greater than 100 krad/h and the absorbed dose greater than 53 krad.

1. Time dependence of the integral of the scintillation pulse in PWO crystal, measured at different temperatures. The crystal was grown in nitrogen with the lanthanide concentration in the crystal of 20 ppm. 35 Mass growth of large PbWO 4 single crystals Another method of increasing the light yield of the PWO crystals is based on adding adding additional luminescence centres with specific parameters to the crystal. In this case, an obvious requirement on such a luminescent centre is the effective capture cross-section of the electrons from the conduction band, with the electrons formed as a result of thermally induced dissociation of excitons.

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