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By Reinhard Siegmund-Schultze

The emigration of mathematicians from Europe throughout the Nazi period signaled an irrevocable and significant historic shift for the foreign arithmetic international. Mathematicians Fleeing from Nazi Germany is the 1st completely documented account of this exodus. during this enormously improved translation of the 1998 German version, Reinhard Siegmund-Schultze describes the flight of greater than one hundred forty mathematicians, their purposes for leaving, the political and fiscal concerns concerned, the reception of those emigrants via quite a few international locations, and the emigrants' carrying on with contributions to arithmetic. The inflow of those fabulous thinkers to different international locations profoundly reconfigured the math global and vaulted the U.S. right into a new management position in arithmetic study. according to archival assets that experience by no means been tested sooner than, the booklet discusses the preeminent emigrant mathematicians of the interval, together with Emmy Noether, John von Neumann, Hermann Weyl, and so on. the writer explores the mechanisms of the expulsion of mathematicians from Germany, the emigrants' acculturation to their new host international locations, and the fates of these mathematicians pressured to stick at the back of. The publication unearths the alienation and unity of the emigrants, and investigates the worldwide improvement of arithmetic because of their radical migration. An in-depth but available examine arithmetic either as a systematic company and human pastime, Mathematicians Fleeing from Nazi Germany offers a shiny photograph of a severe bankruptcy within the historical past of overseas technology.

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Also, aerodynamicists and theoretical mechanics such as Ludwig Hopf, Gustav Kürti, Paul Nemenyi, Hans Reissner, and (a man who finally did not emigrate) Kurt Hohenemser, appeared as “mathematicians” in contemporary lists of emigrants. They were obviously considered “applied” mathematicians by persons who undoubtedly belonged to “core mathematics,” although their training was often engineering. Support mathematicians gave to engineers like Eric(h) Reissner and Arthur Korn during emigration allows them to be included in the considered circle of mathematician-emigrants as well.

S. Freymuth, “Er hat sein Gehirn nach Kalifornien verpflanzt,” Berliner Zeitung, February 9, 1998, p. html. The information on Siodmak’s studies is based on a telephone interview I had with Siodmak on February 12, 1998. I thank Katrin Liebich (Berlin) for drawing my attention to Siodmak. 32 Sigmund (2001), pp. 96–98. As a novelist, Musil also had relations to Richard von Mises. 33 See Siebauer (2000), pp. 37–38, and Sigmund (2001), pp. 98–102. Thanks go to Leo Corry (Tel Aviv) who drew my attention to Perutz although the latter cannot be discussed here for systematical reasons.

The chances of emigration14 worsened considerably at that time, mainly due to the current prevailing conditions of war. Although in Germany and Austria the expulsions had not been restricted to anti-Semitic purges either, in occupied countries such as Poland the Nazi policies of racial cleansing extended in many cases to whole social groups, in particular intellectuals. 15 For reasons mentioned these mathematicians are not primary subjects of this book. The task of describing their fates will be left to their compatriots who are better qualified to study the purges in detail.

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