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By Joseph Keim Campbell, Michael O'Rourke, David Shier

The 1st quantity within the themes IN modern PHILOSOPHY sequence includes 15 essays on quite a number themes within the philosophy of language by way of major authors within the box. each one essay investigates a few element of philosophical semantics; one of the issues addressed are the character of fact, the relation among fact and which means, the semantic nature of quantifiers, and the excellence among semantics and pragmatics.

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But the concept of Cicero is supposed to be different. It is supposed to be a concept that is necessarily connected to the actual man Cicero. How could this be? Here is one explanation: perhaps the concept of Cicero is a concept that can only be identified, individuated, or defined by reference to the man Cicero himself. Maybe we could say that the actual meaning of the name ‘Cicero’ is completely exhausted by the fact that the name refers to Cicero. Similarly, it might be said that the concept expressed by this word can be specified only by reference to that very man.

So it is possible to make sense of the idea that the concept of water is metaphysically but not logically connected to H 2O, provided that we make the prior assumption that the concept of water is logically connected with water in the first place. But I do not think it is possible to make sense of the idea that a given concept or meaning could be metaphysically related to external objects, in the absence of any logical or conceptual relations that the concept or meaning bears to those objects. Kripke’s () suggestion that some propositions, such as the proposition that water is H2O, are both necessarily true and a posteriori, makes sense because such propositions concern the essential nature of some type of substance, where such a nature can only be discovered by empirical investigation.

For instance). So they must deny (). Now it is true that they seem to come very close to asserting (), but actually, what they assert is not () but rather () “It is a conceptual truth that having a thought with the singular proposition that Cicero is an orator as its content requires the existence of Cicero” (, ). , the proposition that Jones is thinking that Cicero is an orator) from the proposition expressed by () Jones has a thought whose content is the proposition that Cicero is an orator.

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