Download Membrane Processing: Dairy and Beverage Applications by Adnan Y. Tamime PDF

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By Adnan Y. Tamime

Content material:
Chapter 1 improvement of Membrane strategies (pages 1–16): Dr okay. Smith
Chapter 2 ideas of Membrane Filtration (pages 17–51): Dr A. Hausmann, Dr M. C. Duke and Dr?Ing T. Demmer
Chapter three advertisement Membrane expertise (pages 52–72): Dr ok. Smith
Chapter four Membrane Fouling, cleansing and Disinfection (pages 73–106): Ms L. L. A. Koh, Dr M. Ashokkumar and Dr S. E. Kentish
Chapter five common software for the therapy of Effluent and Reuse of Wastewater (pages 107–127): Dr N. A. Milne and Dr S. R. Gray
Chapter 6 Liquid Milk Processing (pages 128–142): Dr G. Gesan?Guiziou
Chapter 7 Membrane Processing of Fermented Milks (pages 143–175): Dr B. Ozer and Dr. A. Y. Tamime
Chapter eight Cheese (pages 176–192): Dr V. V. Mistry
Chapter nine Whey Processing (pages 193–207): Dr L. Ramchandran and Dr T. Vasiljevic
Chapter 10 targeted Milk and Powders (pages 208–224): Dr G. Gesan?Guiziou
Chapter eleven extra purposes of Membrane Filtration in Dairy Processing (pages 225–261): Dr J. A. O'Mahony and Dr J. J. Tuohy
Chapter 12 Fruit Juices (pages 262–280): Dr A. Cassano
Chapter thirteen Beer and Cider (pages 281–315): J. Bergin and Dr J. J. Tuohy
Chapter 14 Wine (pages 316–333): Dr ok. Grainger
Chapter 15 software of Membrane know-how in Vinegar (pages 334–338): Dr F. Lopez

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15) 32 Membrane Processing – Dairy and Beverage Applications where N is the number of pores per unit membrane area, Lpore is the average pore channel length depending on membrane thickness or the thickness of the active membrane layer for thin film composite membranes and pore tortuosity as discussed before. Under the simplifying assumption that the value for the membrane porosity (ε) is equal to the total surface area covered by cylindrical pores (ε = Nπ r 2 ), which is proportional to the inverse square of the pore diameter (Porter, 1990).

38 Membrane Processing – Dairy and Beverage Applications Steric effects on retention Solute shape and size are the most important parameters influencing process retentivity. An illustrative example for the impact of solute shape on retention is the comparison of two molecules of the same molecular weight but different diameters. A smaller diameter can be related to a more linear shape and a bigger diameter occurs with spherical molecules. The smaller diameter of the linear molecule makes it more likely to snake through pores whereas the bigger diameter of the spherical molecule causes it to be retained.

Apart from osmotic pressure, another factor adding to the chemical potential that needs to be overcome for RO flux to occur is the vapour pressure. The vapour pressure of a liquid is not only determined by its temperature but also the solvent concentration. At equal temperature, as found during RO, the vapour pressure of a solution is less than that of the pure solvent and consequently the vapour pressure on the RO permeate side is higher than on the feed side. Vapour pressure differences have been made useful in rather novel membrane processes that will be discussed later.

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