By Jean-Loup Baer
This e-book offers a finished description of the structure of microprocessors from easy in-order brief pipeline designs to out-of-order superscalars. It discusses subject matters corresponding to - the regulations and mechanisms wanted for out-of-order processing equivalent to sign up renaming, reservation stations, and reorder buffers - optimizations for top functionality resembling department predictors, guideline scheduling, and load-store speculations - layout offerings and improvements to tolerate latency within the cache hierarchy of unmarried and a number of processors - cutting-edge multithreading and multiprocessing emphasizing unmarried chip implementations issues are offered as conceptual principles, with metrics to evaluate the functionality influence, if applicable, and examples of cognizance. The emphasis is on how issues paintings at a black field and algorithmic point. the writer additionally offers enough element on the sign in move point in order that readers can get pleasure from how layout good points increase functionality in addition to complexity.
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Additional resources for Microprocessor Architecture: From Simple Pipelines to Chip Multiprocessors
C) How many processors are required to be within 2% of the maximum speedup? 13. 1) For each of the metrics specified, indicate which of the (weighted) arithmetic, harmonic, or geometric mean you would use: (a) An experiment where you have run the SPEC CPU2006 integer benchmark on your laptop and noted the execution times of each program in the suite. (b) Same experiment as in (a), but now you also run the suite on a computer in your lab at the University. How do you compare the speeds of the two machines?
Practically, what this means is that if comparisons were made between two machines using a VAX 11/780 as a normalizing factor, these experiments would not have to be rerun if the normalizing factor had become a Sun SPARCstation. Alas, the geometric mean of normalized execution times also has a significant drawback: it can give the wrong result. 3. 5 of 10, and machine M2 executes them in 10 and 2 units, respectively, for a total of 12. 5). This example shows how benchmarks can be manipulated. If the time to execute P2 on M2 had been 3 units, the geometric mean for M2 would have been greater than the one for M1, and the ratings given by the arithmetic and geometric means would have been consistent.
This machine had a SPEC rating of 100. In 2006, the processor is similar but the caches and main memory are larger. The CPU2000 benchmark consists of 12 integer programs SPEC CINT 2000 (11 written in C, and 1 in C++), and 14 floating-point programs SPEC CFP 2000 (11 written in FORTRAN 77 or 90, and 3 in C). 1. The first column gives the name of the program (the numerical prefix serves as an identifier to distinguish versions of programs, some of which are updated versions from SPEC CPU95). The second column gives the source language in which the program is written, and the third a one-liner describing the intent of the program.