Download Mixed Crystals by Professor Dr. Alexander I. Kitaigorodsky (auth.) PDF

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By Professor Dr. Alexander I. Kitaigorodsky (auth.)

The two-word name of this booklet can simply supply a sign approximately its content material and method of the topic it offers with. during time, the time period has progressively develop into just a little blurred. the reason being effortless to work out: comparable difficulties are actually increasingly more often studied via varied branches of average technological know-how. The time period "mixed crystals" has received particular connotations in physics, chemistry, biology, and geology. One and a similar time period can now function a reputation for issues that are both now not particularly a similar or occasionally really assorted. And this is often accurately what occurred to the 2 phrases within the identify of the e-book. one in all them, the time period "crystal", for which crystallography had an un­ ambiguous definition, is now hired by means of biologists to explain the constitution of cellphone membranes and via chemists who use it to indicate levels of polymer crystallinity. "Crystal" has hence develop into a large time period which may support describe any sturdy, or simply a condensed nation of a substance, if the forged has a suf­ ficient measure of order within the association of its parts. however the e-book is named "~lixed Crystals". the opposite notice in its identify, the adjective "mixed", has additionally built a number of meanings. it really is now suggestion ap­ plicable to either homogeneous and heterogeneous structures, that's, to crystals composed of other molecules and likewise to solids which are a mix of crys­ tals with varied structures.

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Additional resources for Mixed Crystals

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Mixed crystals of two solid solutions ~ and 8 begin to form. 13. 14. Phase diagram with a peritectic point (P) Another type of limited solubility is observed when the difference between the melting temperatures of the components is very large. It may so happen that the temperature of the triple point of the two solid phases and the liquid is higher than the melting point of an easily melting component. 13) illustrates the distinction of this case from the previous one. We see that equilibrium is attained when one of the two solid phases has a concentration which is intermediate between the liquid and the other solid phase.

4. It can be related both to a melt or to a solution, for example, to a solution of rock salt (sodium chloride) in water. If the curve is plotted for a temperature lower than the melting temperature of the pure components, then their free energies are depicted by the points K and P. Component A is in equilibrium with the melt C, component P with the melt L. Now imagine, as in the previous section, that the temperature axis is perpendicular to the plane of the sheet. The points C and L in such a three-dimensional diagram wi11 generate certain curves, which are precisely the curves of the two-phase equilibrium.

There are some other reasons which make the term "component" not applicable to most macromolecules and to practically all synthetic polymers. In these cases solids consist of molecules differing in weight. A material can be characterized by a certain distribution in weights. No matter how narrow such a distribution is, we have, strictly speaking, a multicomponent system, because we can always add some more molecules of a certain length, thus changing the distribution in molecular weights. This circumstance can affect the thermodynamic behavior of such substances.

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