By Noritaka Mizuno
Filling a spot within the present literature, this complete reference offers all vital catalyst sessions, together with steel oxides, polyoxometalates, and zeolites. Readers will locate the following every thing they should understand -- from constitution layout to characterization, and from immobilization to commercial processes.A actual must-have for somebody operating during this key expertise.
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Extra resources for Modern Heterogeneous Oxidation Catalysis: Design, Reactions and Characterization
It can be seen that the surface stays stable in its chemical composition whereas the sub-surface regime loses some oxygen in accordance with the lattice oxygen concept. This implies that the oxide surface is structurally stable [133, 183, 212] and yet transmits oxygen from the bulk into the gas phase without signiﬁcant kinetic hindrance. The high structural stability is expected from theoretical work [16, 131, 188] showing that creation of surface defects in an ordered oxide is a energetically very costly process that will not happen by thermal action except for compensation by a chemical reaction (such as water or CO2 formation).
The oxidation of propane to acrylic acid is a prominent example of where the splitting of the reaction over more than one site is discussed. A literature compilation  of data suggests two sites and a competition between partial and total oxidation via direct and intermediate deep oxidation. 5 support this view. 5(a) one observes, under kinetically relevant conditions of below 10% conversion, opposing trends for total and partial oxidation where not only the sign of the trend but also the shape of the curve indicate that different sites and different limiting factors operate in this reaction.
For the present discussion it is obvious that extended surfaces of oxides in contact with practical pressures of oxygen will be inert for catalytic reactions as the surface exposes essentially oxygen electronic states and gives no access to metal d-states carrying electrons for chemisorption and activation of adsorbates. Structural defects such as steps and kinks (roughness), chemical effects such as pre-reduced sites or designed weak spots in a complex structure such as main group element atoms [26, 195, 196] in a transition metal ion matrix are pre-requisites to initiate catalytic  reaction.