Download Modified Nucleic Acids in Biology and Medicine by Stefan Jurga, Volker A. Erdmann (Deceased), Jan Barciszewski PDF

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By Stefan Jurga, Volker A. Erdmann (Deceased), Jan Barciszewski

This quantity is constituted of 18 chapters, protecting numerous elements of DNA amendment and RNA converted bases. It additionally discusses intimately round RNA, healing oligonucleotides and their diversified properties.

The chemical nature of DNA, RNA, protein and lipids makes those macromolecules simply modifiable, yet also they are at risk of harm from either endogenous and exogenous brokers. Alkylation and oxidation exhibit a possible to disrupt the mobile redox equilibrium and reason mobile harm resulting in irritation or even continual affliction. additionally, DNA harm can force mutagenesis and the ensuing DNA series alterations can set off carcinogenesis and melanoma progression.

Modified nucleosides can ensue due to oxidative DNA harm and RNA turnover, and are used as markers for numerous illnesses. to operate appropriately a few RNA has to be chemically transformed post-transcriptionally. Dysregulation of the RNA-modification trend or of the degrees of the enzymes that catalyze those changes alters RNA performance and will bring about advanced phenotypes, most probably because of defects in protein translation. whereas changes are most sensible characterised in noncoding ribonucleic acids like tRNA and rRNA, coding mRNAs have additionally been came upon to include changed nucleosides.

This ebook is a worthy source, not just for graduate scholars but additionally researchers within the fields of molecular drugs and molecular biology.

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Extra resources for Modified Nucleic Acids in Biology and Medicine

Sample text

2 Posttranscriptional Processing of tRNAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 General Remarks on tRNA Processing, Maturation, and Fragmentation . . . . . . 2 tRNA Modifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Role of tRNA Modifications in tRNA Cleavage: Targets or Antidotes? . . . . . . 3 tRNA-Derived Fragments . . . . . . . .

Evidence came from a study showing that yeast cells sense stress (such as alkylating stress) and promote selective translation of codon-biased mRNAs by a dynamic change in the levels of a specific modification (mCm5U) at the wobble position of selected tRNAs (tRNAArg(UCU) and tRNAGlu(UUC)) by tRNA methyltransferase 9 (Trm9) (Begley et al. 2007). This modification modulates tRNA–mRNA pairing and allows more efficient binding to the cognate mRNA codon. Such Trm9/mcm5 U-sensitive mRNAs are enriched with specific arginine and glutamic acid codons and encode DNA damage response proteins; their overexpression leads to the upregulation of DNA damage defense mechanisms against alkylating stress.

2 tRNA-Derived Fragments in Human Health and Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 29 29 32 34 38 39 44 47 48 Abstract Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) play a key role in translating genomic information and regulating gene expression.

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