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By Sanjoy Paul

IP Multicast 29 four 29 4.1 opposite direction Forwarding ....... 4.2 net team administration Protocol 31 Truncated Broadcasting ........ 32 4.3 4.4 Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP) 34 4.5 precis · ......................... 35 five Multicast Extensions to Open Shortest direction First (MO- SPF) 39 5.1 High-level Description 39 structure ...... forty 5.2 5.2.1 layout objectives forty-one Protocol facts constructions forty-one 5.2.2 5.3 Protocol. forty four fifty two 5.4 precis · ............ 6 Protocol autonomous Multicast (PIM) fifty three 6.1 High-Level Description fifty three fifty four 6.2 structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 layout ambitions: ........ fifty four 6.2.2 parts and services fifty five 6.3 Protocol ............... fifty seven 6.3.1 developing the PIM framework fifty eight 6.3.2 making a particular multicast tree for a gaggle fifty nine 6.3.3 Multicast information forwarding . . . . . . sixty four 6.3.4 Operation in a multi-access community sixty five 6.3.5 record of PIM messages sixty eight 6.3.6 an entire instance sixty nine 6.4 precis · ...... sixty nine 7 Core-Based Tree (CBT) seventy three 7.1 High-level Description seventy three 7.2 structure . . . . . . seventy four 7.2.1 layout pursuits: .

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In contrast to unicast routing which is based on only the destination address, multicast routing is based on both the source address and the destination address of the datagram. Just as OSPF computes a shortest path between the source and the destination, MOSPF computes a spanning tree rooted at the source such that the path between the source and each destination along the tree is the shortest path between them. 2. Add minimal functionality to OSPF to support multicast: OSPF routers maintain the complete topology of an area in an AS.

DVMRP is a distributed implementation of Bellman-Ford shortest path algorithm based on reverse path forwarding [DM78]. CBT uses a variant of Wall's center-based tree [Wa80]. PIM (sparse mode) 27 combines the center-based tree approach (for the RP-based shared tree) with an approximate version of Bellman-Ford algorithm (for the sourcebased shortest path tree). 5 Summary There are two fundamental approaches in designing multicast routing algorithms - one is to minimize the distance (or cost) from the sender to each receiver and the other is to minimize the overall cost of the multicast tree.

2 Internet Group Management Protocol IGMP was first proposed in 1989 and documented as RFC-1112 (Host extensions for IP multicasting) [D89]. Since then it has gone through several modifications resulting in IGMP version-2 [F97] and IGMP version-3 [CDT97]. The key ideas of IGMP can be stated as follows: 1. An IGMP-capable router periodically broadcasts an IGMP HostMembership Query message on its subnet. 2. If there is a host on the subnet that subscribes to a group, it schedules a random timer to send an IGMP Host-Membership Report message to the corresponding group members.

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