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By R.J. Nelson

The matter of reference is critical to the fields of linguistics, cognitive technology, and epistemology--yet it continues to be principally unresolved. Naming and Reference explains the reference of lexical phrases, with specific emphasis put on right names, demonstrative pronouns and private pronouns. It examines such particular concerns as: the best way to account for the reference of names which are empty or speculative, which abound in technology and philosophy, and the way to account for intentional reference as in ``he took Mary to be Jane.'' by utilizing a number of computing device types, R. J. Nelson explores the that means and reference of phrases to things and the connection of those phenomena to belief, trust and fact. The types used are parallel, connectionist

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English or German come later. 2. Exact languages Even in fairly formal Frege there is a rich ontology and a vocabulary to go with it. ; predicates, including ‘=’, quantifiers and parentheses. Since the language is well constructed, all names have bearers (if they did not, some sentences would be neither true nor false, as we shall see) and all predicates apply to subsets of the given objects. g. ‘5+7’ and ‘12’. However, all names are univocal; no name refers to two objects. g. ‘is divisible by 8’ and is ‘is divisible by 23’; or ‘is human’ and ‘is a political animal’.

The inference is an example of a genuine triadic relation or ‘third’ which is not decomposable into dyadic relations of propositions. The premises internally mediate between the law of logic and the conclusion. 59ff); and like all other mediation its relation to the extremes is essential. All semiotic phenomena, not just familiar arguments in spoken languages, are inferential. 228). The something it stands for is the object, and the ‘somebody’ in this case is another sign in the mind of an interpreter.

Logic sets conditions for passing from true thoughts about things thus selected to other true thoughts about those things. For instance, the truth of an atomic statement depends on who or what is mentioned. ‘Russell is a philosopher’ is true, that truth depending on the named object being Russell. ‘Bush is a philosopher’ is false, that falsity depending on the named object being Bush. Furthermore, the truth or falsity of more complex statements depends on that of the component statements. So (temporarily ignoring quantification) truth ultimately depends on the reference of the proper names occurring in the simple parts and secondarily on its illative dependence on other statements.

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