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By Michael Hübner, Cristina Silvano

This booklet explores near-threshold computing (NTC), a design-space utilizing concepts to run electronic chips (processors) close to the bottom attainable voltage. Readers might be enabled with particular suggestions to layout chips which are super powerful; tolerating variability and resilient opposed to blunders. Variability-aware voltage and frequency allocation schemes may be provided that may supply functionality promises, whilst relocating towards near-threshold manycore chips.

· presents an advent to near-threshold computing, permitting reader with a number of instruments to stand the demanding situations of the power/utilization wall;

· Demonstrates the right way to layout effective voltage legislation, in order that each one zone of the chip can function on the best voltage and frequency point;

· Investigates how functionality promises may be ensured whilst relocating in the direction of NTC manycores via variability-aware voltage and frequency allocation schemes.

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Additional info for Near Threshold Computing: Technology, Methods and Applications

Example text

Since the Vdd( ) , k Î VI , j Î D , is allocated according to Eq. 5) where fmax(k,j) corresponds to the maximum frequency supported Vdd(k,j), and fNTC is the minimum frequency to sustain the performance. Given the NTC voltage allocation, the power overhead of allowing higher clock frequencies than fNTC is expected to be limited due to the linear but upper bounded frequency increment. We foresee the proposed MVMF scheme to be proved very advantageous for multi-process workloads exhibiting efficient scalability due to limited synchronization, where performance boost of a single core leads to direct throughput improvements.

Stamelakos et al. e. the minimum clock frequency requested to sustain STC performance without timing violations). 4, the effects of process variability are not monolithic: process variation might generate slower on-chip regions (higher Vth values) that reduce the achievable clock frequency as well as faster regions (lower Vth values) that enable clock frequencies higher than the fNTC to be allocated. The existence of positive frequency slack at specific regions of the manycore platform can be exploited by moving from the previous MVSF approach to a MVMF power management scheme to further enhance system performance.

We consider four intra-tile architectures by varying the number of cores per tile and the memory configuration of the last level cache (LLC) per tile. Each core owns a private instruction and data cache (P$). The LLC (LL$) is shared among the different cores composing a tile. The Intel Nehalem processor [13] configuration for the core and the P$ has been adopted. While the P$ size remains constant across the different intra-tile configurations, the size of the (LL$) is scaled according to the number of cores in the tiles, keeping constant the total chip area across the different configurations.

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