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By Paul Boghossian, Christopher Peacocke

A stellar line-up of major philosophers from worldwide supply new remedies of an issue which has lengthy been valuable to philosophical debate, and within which there has lately been a surge of curiosity. The a priori is the class of data that's presupposed to be autonomous of expertise. The members provide a number of techniques to the a priori and look at its function in several components of philosophical inquiry. The editors' advent bargains a good way into the discussions.

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For purposes of epistemological discussion, 'experience' has come to mean sense experience. Frege on Apriority 21 sense experience. His discussion of Millian empiricism follows his definition of apriority by a few pages. In those sections he repeatedly writes of 'observed facts', apparently picking up on the notion of fact that appears in his definition of aposteriority (FA: sects. 7-9). 20 So a proof's depending on particular facts would make it rest on sense experience. Moreover, his criticism of Mill explicitly takes 'empirical' to be opposed to 'apriori' (FA: sect.

Kant did not make use of this flexibility. Its possibility is, however, implicit in his conception. ' He goes on to discuss whether there are any propositions that can be known only apriori. I have no quarrel with Dummett's substantive discussion. But his historical reasoning is off the mark. Frege's characterization takes apriority to apply to truths or idealized judgements. There is no relativization to particular ways of knowing those truths. A truth or judgement-type is either apriori or not.

A truth or judgement is apriori if its best or canonical justification proceeds as a deductive proof from general principles that neither need nor admit of proof. Dummett fails to notice that there is no clear meaning within Frege's terminology for a question whether a truth can be known both apriori and aposteriori. That question can be better investigated by shifting to a Kantian conception of apriority. Dummett slides between the two conceptions. Frege could certainly have understood and accepted the Kantian conception; but he did not use it or propose it.

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