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Over the prior thirty years nongovernmental businesses (NGOs) have performed an more and more influential position in foreign negotiations, relatively on environmental matters. NGO international relations has turn into, within the phrases of 1 organizer, an "international test in democratizing intergovernmental determination making." yet there was little try and be certain the stipulations below which NGOs make a distinction in both the method or the result of foreign negotiations. This booklet provides an analytic framework for the systematic and comparative research of NGO international relations in overseas environmental negotiations. Chapters through specialists on foreign environmental coverage observe this framework to evaluate the impact of NGO international relations on particular negotiations on environmental and sustainability matters. The proposed analytical framework deals researchers the instruments with which to evaluate even if and the way NGO diplomats impact negotiation methods, results, or either, and during comparative research the booklet identifies components that designate version in NGO impression, together with coordination of procedure, measure of entry, institutional overlap, and alliances with key states. The empirical chapters use the framework to judge the measure of NGO effect at the first section of the Kyoto Protocol negotiations on worldwide weather swap, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, the United countries conference to strive against Desertification, negotiations in the foreign Whaling fee that ended in new administration strategies and a ban on advertisement whaling, and overseas negotiations on forests related to the United countries, the overseas Tropical trees association, and the area exchange Organization.

ContributorsSteinar Andresen, Michele M. Betsill, Stanley W. Burgiel, Elisabeth Corell, David Humphreys, Tora Skodvin.

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Extra info for NGO Diplomacy: The Influence of Nongovernmental Organizations in International Environmental Negotiations

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Rather than construct a single measure of political opportunity structure, we find it more useful to think of political opportunity structures as clusters of variables and to analyze whether and how specific aspects of the institutional context shape NGO opportunities for influence (see Gamson and Meyer 1996). In the context of international environmental negotiations, many scholars point to the rules for NGO access as an element of the organizational structure likely to constrain NGO diplomats. Where rules for access are restrictive, NGOs may be less likely to exert high levels of influence, since they have fewer opportunities for direct interaction with state delegates as well as limited access to information related to the negotiations (Corell and Betsill 2001; Raustiala 1997; Williams and Ford 1999).

First we suggest ways of collecting and analyzing data related to NGO influence in a more systematic manner. , states)—and encourage scholars to gather data on these two dimensions from a variety of sources. We suggest that researchers examine how NGO diplomats shape the negotiation process as well as outcome using process tracing and counterfactual analysis to analyze their data. The second part of our approach consists of a set of indicators that scholars can use to assess the overall influence of NGO diplomats in a particular negotiating context.

First, we seek to develop methodologies for strengthening claims of NGO influence in international environmental negotiations. The analytical framework we present here contributes to this objective by encouraging analysts to collect and analyze data on the influence of NGO diplomats in a more systematic manner. Moreover we argue that this systematic approach can be used to make more nuanced, qualitative assessments of NGO influence, which in turn allow for comparison across cases.

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