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By Günter Groß

Starting with the outline of meteorological variables in wooded area canopies and its parameter diversifications, a numerical three-dimentional version is built. Its applicability is confirmed, first, by means of wind sheltering results of hedges and, moment, via the results of deforestation on neighborhood weather in complicated terrain. Scientists in ecology, agricultural botany and meteorology, but additionally city and nearby lanners will benefit from this examine discovering the simplest answer for his or her particular problems.

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As thermal stratification a neutral stratified atmosphere is assumed. The computation volume is covered by a grid with a unit width of 1 m in both the horizontal and vertical directions. As the x-axis coincides with the wind direction at height H, more grid points are assumed in this direction rather than at right angles to it. The total number of grid points is 81 x 31 x 41 (vertical) = 102951. The number is effectively doubled in the y-direction because of the assumed symmetry conditions. Within the obstacle the individual stand elements cannot be considered as their dimensions are below the cell size of 1 m.

The associated wake zone grows with increasing velocity until eventually closed eddies are detached in alternating fashion from either side of the cylinder and drift along with the mean flow in a Karman vortex street. Regular vortex streets, however, are only possible for Re numbers between 60 and 5000. With all other input parameters remaining as in the reference run, the superimposed wind speed u(H) was reduced to 50% in one simulation and doubled in the other. The influence of these altered wind velocities on the calculated fields of the meteorological variables will be discussed with particular regard to the reverse flow area behind the cone.

9 the horizontal profiles of the u component of the wind are presented for 1 m above ground along the symmetry axis" The values are normalized to the respective values at the inflow boundary. The profiles are rather similar for all three velocities: An area with strong retardation on the windward side of the obstacle is followed by a zone with very low velocities within the obstacle itself. 5 o 1::1 ......... -"T'"""";"';";';;o 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 X 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 (m) Fig. 9. Horizontal profile of u component at 1 m height at y = 19 m, normalized to undisturbed value (cone-shaped tree, neutral stratification).

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