By David H. Adamkin
The objective of dietary administration in VLBW and ELBW babies is the success of postnatal progress at a expense that approximates the intrauterine development of a typical fetus on the comparable postconceptional age. in truth, in spite of the fact that, development lags significantly after beginning; even though non-nutritional elements are concerned, nutrient deficiencies are severe in explaining behind schedule development. This sensible clinically-oriented pocketbook experiences and summarises all on hand scientific proof. It permits the reader to enforce parenteral or enteral feeding plans, with the ambitions of decreasing postnatal weightloss, previous go back to birthweight, and more suitable catch-up development. either nutrient stability and development and the effect on neurodevelopment and health and wellbeing results are evaluated. With many tables and algorithms to summarise key facts and administration options, dietary concepts for the Very Low Birthweight child is a useful advisor for all healthcare execs taking care of untimely infants.
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Extra resources for Nutritional Strategies for the Very Low Birthweight Infant
Therefore on enteral nutrition, to attain the equivalent of the third-trimester intrauterine weight gain (15 g/kg/d), a metabolizable energy intake of approximately 70 kcal/kg/d above the 51 kcal/kg/d required for maintenance must be provided, or approximately 120 kcal/kg/d. Increasing metabolizable energy intakes beyond 120 kcal/kg/d with just energy supplementation does not result in proportionate increases in weight gain. However, when energy, protein, fat, and Energy minerals are all increased, weight gain will increase with accretion of protein and fat .
Bell EF, Acarregui MJ, Restricted versus liberal water intake for preventing morbidity and mortality in preterm infants (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1. Chichester, UK: John Wiley; 2004. Bell EF, Warburton D, Stonestreet BS, et al. High-volume fluid intake predisposes premature infants to necrotizing enterocolitis. Lancet 1979; 2:90. Fluid and electrolyte management Gaylord MS, Wright K, Lorch V, Walker E. Improved fluid management utilizing humidified incubators in extremely low birth weight infants.
A daily increase of 10 kcal/ kg/d should be allowed to cover incidental cold stress in the preterm infant. Infants who are intrauterine growth restricted, particularly the asymmetrical type, have a higher RMR on a per kilogram body weight basis because of their relatively high proportion of metabolically active mass. 1 Estimated energy expenditure in a growing preterm infant kcal/kg/d Resting energy expenditure Minimal activitya Occasional cold stressa 47 4 10 Fecal loss of energy (10% to 16% of total intake) 15 Growthb (includes dietary-induced thermogenesis) 45 Total 121 As an infant matures, energy expended in activities, such as crying and a nursing, increases; at the same time, energy expended as a result of cold stress decreases.