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Extra resources for Organic Chemistry, Third Edition

Example text

2 Bonding 11 Ionic compounds form extended crystal lattices that maximize the positive and negative electrostatic interactions. In NaCl, each positively charged Na+ ion is surrounded by six negatively charged Cl– ions, and each Cl– ion is surrounded by six Na+ ions. NaCl—An ionic crystalline lattice = Cl– = Na+ Lithium fluoride, LiF, is an example of an ionic compound. • The element lithium, located in group 1A of the periodic table, has just one valence elec- tron in its second shell. If this electron is lost, lithium forms the cation Li+ having no electrons in the second shell.

Carbon atoms combine together to form rings and chains. Ginkgolide B—A Complex Organic Compound from the Ginkgo Tree Let’s complete this discussion with ginkgolide B (C20H24O10), a complex organic compound isolated from the ginkgo tree Ginkgo biloba, the oldest seed-producing plant that currently lives on earth (Figure 2). Also called the maidenhair tree, Ginkgo biloba has existed for over 280 million years, and fossil records indicate that it has undergone little significant evolutionary change for eons.

Adding electrons to the first shell forms the first row. Adding electrons to the second shell forms the second row. Electrons are first added to the shells closest to the nucleus. These electrons are held most tightly. Each shell contains a certain number of subshells called orbitals. An orbital is a region of space that is high in electron density. There are four different kinds of orbitals, called s, p, d, and f. The first shell has only one orbital, called an s orbital. The second shell has two kinds of orbitals, s and p, and so on.

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