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By S. Boiteux (auth.), Dr. C. Pasquier, Dr. R. Y. Olivier, Dr. C. Auclair, Prof. Dr. Lester Packer (eds.)

Since the looks of photosynthesis on our planet, all dwelling organisms were dealing with a brand new considerable, tremendous reactive aspect, oxygen. This point is used for the synthesis of hugely vigorous compounds, yet may also generate molecules able to destructive materials of dwelling constructions, together with proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. it truly is hence no shock that each one organic organisms have developed a number of and complicated how you can lessen the dangerous results of oxygen. For cells and tissues of hugely geared up animals, relatively cells of the immune approach, superoxidation items play an enormous position, through oxidative tension, in activation, irritation and viral and bacterial infections. We needs to be thankful to Drs. C. Pasquier, C. Auclair, L. Packer and R. Olivier for having introduced jointly many experts in a world assembly held in Paris in March 1993, on the Ministry of study. This publication contains a powerful quantity of contemporary wisdom, a true mine for the reader during this quick constructing box of study. in addition, we must always now not overlook that this simple examine could lead sooner or later to new healing methods to crucial pathologies of the latter a part of this century, together with AIDS.

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The observed effects on hamster and rat fibroblasts of exogenously added superoxide dismutase and catalase suggest that superoxide and hydrogen peroxide not only have growth stimulatory effects but their presence, at least at low levels, appears necessary for cell viability as judged by trypan blue staining (Burdon, 1992a). Whilst exogenously added superoxide dismutase (or catalase) brings about the 'down-regulation' of growth responses, these experiments however do not unequivocally support the involvement 47 of only extracellularly released superoxide (or hydrogen peroxide) as growth regulators.

These derived oxygen species stimulate the expression of early growth regulated genes such as c-fos and c-myc . Such observations have led to suggestions that superoxide and hydrogen peroxide may function as, or augment, mitogenic stimuli through biochemical processes common to natural growth factors. The growth related effects of superoxide are extremely rapid. Intracellular pH is increased in human amnion cells within 10 sec (Ikebuchi et aI, 1991) and this is followed by an increase in intracellular Ca2+ in 20-40 sec.

M. A. (1992). Oxidative stress and heat shock induce a human gene encoding a protein-tyrosine phosphatase. , Akanuma, Y. and Kasuga, M. (1988). Hydrogen peroxide stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and its tyrosine kinase activity in intact cells. Biochem J. 250: 95-101. , Fischer, I. and Weiss, R. (1983). Vanadium (V) peroxo complexes. New versatile biomimetic reagents for epoxidation of olefins and hydroxylation of alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 105: 3101-3110.

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