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By William H. Davis (auth.)

This paintings is an essay in Peirce's epistemology, with approximately an equivalent emphasis at the "epistemology" as at the "Peirce's." In different phrases our purpose has now not been to write down completely a section of Peirce scholarshiJ>­ as a result, the reader will locate no problematic tying in of Peirce's epistemology to different parts of his suggestion, no nice emphasis at the chronology of his idea, and so on. Peirce scholarship is a painstaking company. His brain was once Labyrinthine, his terminology problematic, and his writings are, as he himself confessed, "a snarl of twine." This e-book particularly is meant even perhaps essentially as an essay in epistemology, taking Peirce's because the point of interest. The booklet hence addresses a common philosophical viewers and bears as a lot at the wider factor as at the guy. i'm hoping for this reason that readers will provide their severe consciousness to the matter of data and the sugges­ tions we've got constructed round that challenge and won't glance the following within the wish of discovering an exhaustive piece of Peirce scholarship.

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Second, do we have any reason to' believe that the beans have been evenly distributed? If not, the drawing out of 5,000 red beans proves nothing about the next beans tOo come out because the bag might have white beans in its bottom half and red beans in its top half, or any Df an infinite number of other cDmbinations. But if we know that the bag is full of beans and that they have been evenly distributed, then our notion Df the characteristics Df the beans still in the bag is improved with the drawing of HYPOTHESIS OR ABDUCTION each new bean, and all the laws of inductive reasoning apply.

This fact alone conclusively destroys this argument. And in the second HYPOTHESIS OR ABDUOTION place, supposing that experience will go on indefinitely, no matter what ratio past experience established (and it will always establish some ratio, contrary to Peirce's implication - even if each event is totally different) this ratio gives us no logical (deductive or pseudo-deductive) warrant for believing that any future event will be like the past one or ones. The next event is all unknown. No matter what pattern past events have disclosed, no matter how long those events have persevered in that pattern, we cannot make a statement of probability concerning the next event with any degree of assurance from the standpoint of deduction or statistical induction unless we know some important characteristic of the whole, for the next event may mark the beginning of a totally new pattern, or even the beginning of chaos, and unless we know something about the whole from which we are drawing samples, those samples will not necessarily indicate anything whatever about the remaining portions of the whole, if there be any remaining portions.

Thinking and reasoning are essentially creative processes and go beyond all of our efforts to write logic books. Deduction and induction are tools which scientists use. Sometimes it is helpful to deduce some conse15 Bertrand Russell, "non-Demonstrative Inference and Induction," in The Structure of Scientific Thought, Edward H. Madden, ed. , 1960), p. 323. 16 Albert Einstein, The Method of Theoretical Physics (Oxford, 1933), quoted in Norwood Russell Hanson, Patterns of Discovery (Cambridge: At the University Press, 1958), p.

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