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By Lydia Patton

Philosophy, technological know-how, and background: A advisor and Reader is a compact assessment of the historical past and philosophy of technological know-how that goals to introduce scholars to the foundation of the sector, and to stimulate cutting edge examine. the overall advent makes a speciality of medical concept switch, overview, discovery, and pursuit. half I of the Reader starts off with vintage texts within the background of logical empiricism, together with Reichenbach’s discovery-justification contrast. With cautious connection with Kuhn’s research of medical revolutions, the part offers key texts studying the connection of HOPOS to the background of technological know-how, together with texts through Santayana, Rudwick, and Shapin and Schaffer. half II presents texts illuminating important debates within the heritage of technology and its philosophy. those comprise the historical past of normal philosophy (Descartes, Newton, Leibniz, Kant, Hume, and du Châtelet in a brand new translation); induction and the good judgment of discovery (including the Mill-Whewell debate, Duhem, and Hanson); and catastrophism as opposed to uniformitarianism in traditional heritage (Playfair on Hutton and Lyell; de Buffon, Cuvier, and Darwin). The editor’s introductions to every part offer a broader viewpoint proficient through modern examine in each one quarter, together with similar issues. each one advent furnishes proposals, together with thematic bibliographies, for leading edge study questions and tasks within the lecture room and within the box.

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Tn} is true, and the auxiliary hypotheses {A1, A2, . , An} hold, then we will make an observation O1 in an experiment. 2. Result: O1 was not observed. Therefore, either one or more claims of the theory {T1, T2, . , Tn} is false, or one or more of the auxiliary hypotheses {A1, A2, . , An} does not hold, or both. With the “negative heuristic,” Lakatos is pointing out, with Duhem, that a scientist can modify the auxiliaries to block the modus tollens and protect the theory. However, scientists in a research programme do not protect all elements of the theory equally.

4) Neurath’s metaphor of science as a ship at sea, which would have to be repaired as it sailed, is a compelling statement of his “fallibilism” about science. According to Neurath, science must be overhauled as it is in progress, and no plank on the ship is immune from being replaced or re-designed. Fallibilism is Neurath’s response to “foundationalism” in the philosophy of science, according to which certain elements of scientific theories are too central, too essential, to be jettisoned or amended.

1961/1950. The Mechanization of the World Picture. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Dilthey, Wilhelm. 1991/1883. Wilhelm Dilthey: Selected Works Volume I: Introduction to the Human Sciences, trans. Rudolf Makkreel and Frithjof Rodi. : Princeton University Press. ). 2010. Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science. Chicago: Open Court. Duhem, Pierre. 1902. L’évolution de la mécanique. Paris: A. Hermann. ——. 1914. La théorie physique: son objet et sa structure, second ed.

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