By S. F. Sun(auth.)
Integrating insurance of polymers and organic macromolecules right into a unmarried textual content, Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules is thoroughly dependent to supply a transparent and constant source for rookies and pros alike. the elemental wisdom of either biophysical and actual polymer chemistry is roofed, besides vital phrases, easy structural homes and relationships.
This e-book comprises finish of bankruptcy difficulties and references, and likewise:
- Enables clients to enhance simple wisdom of biophysical chemistry and actual polymer chemistry.
- Explores absolutely the rules of macromolecular chemistry, equipment for deciding on molecular weight and configuration of molecules, the constitution of macromolecules, and their separations.Content:
Chapter 1 advent (pages 1–18):
Chapter 2 Syntheses of Macromolecular Compounds (pages 19–51):
Chapter three Distribution of Molecular Weight (pages 52–66):
Chapter four Macromolecular Thermodynamics (pages 67–95):
Chapter five Chain Configurations (pages 96–126):
Chapter 6 Liquid Crystals (pages 127–149):
Chapter 7 Rubber Elasticity (pages 150–164):
Chapter eight Viscosity and Viscoelasticity (pages 165–197):
Chapter nine Osmotic strain (pages 198–222):
Chapter 10 Diffusion (pages 223–242):
Chapter eleven Sedimentation (pages 243–266):
Chapter 12 Optical Rotatory Dispersion and round Dichroism (pages 267–283):
Chapter thirteen High?Performance Liquid Chromatography and Electrophoresis (pages 284–319):
Chapter 14 gentle Scattering (pages 320–347):
Chapter 15 Fourier sequence (pages 348–370):
Chapter sixteen Small?Angle X?Ray Scattering, Neutron Scattering, and Laser gentle Scattering (pages 371–398):
Chapter 17 digital and Infrared Spectroscopy (pages 399–435):
Chapter 18 Protein Molecules (pages 436–454):
Chapter 19 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (pages 455–496):
Chapter 20 X?Ray Crystallography (pages 497–534):
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Extra resources for Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules: Basic Principles and Issues, Second Edition
Although the main topic of this book is macromolecules, we are also interested in colloids. Since colloids were known first, we will describe them first. 1 COLLOIDS When small molecules with a large surface region are dispersed in a medium to form two phases, they are in a colloidal state and they form colloids. The two phases are liquid–liquid, solid–liquid, and so on. , not a homogeneous mixture of solute and solvent), but rather one type of material dispersed on another type of material. The large surface region is responsible for surface activity, the capacity to reduce the surface or interface tensions.
The polymer is therefore called a living polymer. To meet these requirements, synthesis is usually performed under high vacuum and the product is also kept in a container sealed under high vacuum. An example is the polymerization of styrene with sodium naphthalene at a pressure of 1 Â 10À6 mm Hg: Initiation via electron transfer: CH2 Na+ THF + Na Na+ + Naphthalene CH2 CH Electron transfer (not a radical) CH Radical anion CH CH2 Na+ CH CH2 2 Dianion (red color) H H C CH2 CH2 C Na+ Na+ Propagation at both ends: H C H CH2CH2 C Na+ Na+ + (n + m) CH2 H C Na+ CH H CH2 CH CH2 n CH2 CH mCH2 C Na+ IONIC POLYMERIZATION 29 Since there is no chain transfer involved, preparation through living polymer results in a narrow distribution of molecular weight.
As the cascade continues, the positive charge can migrate down the conjugated chain. 2 IONIC POLYMERIZATION The two types of ionic polymerizations are anionic and cationic. The former involves carbanions CÉ and the latter involves carbonium CÈ ions. Catalysts and cocatalysts are needed in ionic polymerization. 1 Anionic Polymerization The catalysts for anionic polymerization are alkali metals, alkali metal amides, alkoxides, and cyanides. The cocatalysts are organic solvents, such as heptane. An example of anionic polymerization is the synthesis of polystyrene: Initiation: NH3 NaNH2 Na+NH2− H Na+NH2− + CH2 CH NH2 CH2 C Na 26 SYNTHESES OF MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS Propagation: H NH2 CH2 C + CH2 Na CH CH2 CH H NH2 CH2 CH CH2 C Na Termination: H CH2 C Na CH2 + NH3 CH2 + NH2 Na+ The chain growth in anionic polymerization does not necessarily have to go in one direction, as shown in the above example.