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By David A. Dunmur, Atsuo Fukuda, Geoffrey Luckhurst

The call for for liquid crystals with greater demonstrate parameters and decrease energy intake has inspired a lot examine into their homes and characterization. a wide group of over 50 top researchers from the us, Europe and Japan have concentrated their services to extract and evaluate facts on a variety of houses of nematics, together with these that are necessary to the advance of every kind of liquid crystal gadget. the place acceptable those homes also are defined with specialist remark. The booklet is absolutely illustrated and established for reference.

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See 2 and 3a) or hoop-like (see 3g) in shape; they are sketched and further described in FIGURE 4. FIGURE 4 Sketches of the two general molecular structures consisting of a disc-/star-like (left) or hoop-like core with or without a metal centre (right) and mostly six peripheral chains, found in liquid crystals, exhibiting the discotic nematic or, as a result of spontaneous stacking of such individual molecules, the columnar nematic phase (see FIGURE 1). g. g. 8). The formation of the N D phase directly from the crystalline state of discotic materials on heating or above a columnar type of phase (in general, the latter by far more typical for them) seems to be controlled to a greater extent by the length of the outer moieties [6].

The high smectic tendency of compound 62 is due to the outer fluoro substituent which serves to fill vacant space and enhance the lateral attractions [32]. g. 65) with very low melting points that have been used in nematic mixtures for displays. Once again the fluoro substituent is far more destructive of smectic phases than of the nematic phase, but the location of the fluoro substituent is important (see compounds 63-65) [50]. 63, 64, 65, Esters are very common liquid crystal compounds, and lateral fluoro substitution has provided some interesting modifications to melting points, transition temperatures, mesophase morphology and physical properties.

For example, branched chains are common, usually for the purpose of generating a chiral centre for chiral nematic or chiral smectic C liquid crystals. The effect of the branch is to broaden the molecules and hence the transition temperatures are usually depressed significantly, often with the largest reduction in the smectic phase stability, but melting points are often not so much affected (compare compounds 29 and 30) [32]. TABLE 1 Transition temperatures for alkylcyanobiphenyl homologues [13,14,27].

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