Download Physics of Crystalline Dielectrics: Volume 2 Electrical by Prof. Ivan Stepanovich Zheludev (auth.) PDF

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By Prof. Ivan Stepanovich Zheludev (auth.)

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Extra info for Physics of Crystalline Dielectrics: Volume 2 Electrical Properties

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The static polarization processes in Rochelle salt subjected to weak fields can be investigated quite simply by direct observation of changes in the domain structure by time-exposure photography or by Cinematographic methods. Investigations carried out by these methods show that in subcritical fields (curve 1 in Fig. 165) a slight increase of the polarization with time is mainly due to the appearance of a small number of domains which have not grown fully in the preceding polarization stage. In an electric field the ab and ac domains of Rochelle salt behave in the same manner, although the ab domains are encountered more frequently, the walls between them are more stable, and they have lower energies.

C. Interfacial and High-Voltage Polarizat ion. The interfacial polarization is observed in heterogeneous dielectrics and is due to differences between the values of the electrical conductivity and permittivity of different parts (or microparticles) of a dielectric. When an electric field is applied to such a dielectric charges accumulate at the boundaries between different components and this is equivalent to polarization. The interfacial polarization can be regarded also as a relaxational polarization because a definite time is required for its establishment and destruction and, moreover, it generally obeys an exponential law.

161. In the second case, the permittivity £, of a solid crystal is similar to £, in the liquid state. , it is practically equal to £, of water). --- - - - -----. 16 {2 9 Fig. 162. Temperature dependence of the permittivity of hydrochloric acid. 50 -120 -80 ,,·C Fig. 163. Temperature dependence of the permittivity of HBr. indicates that the polar radicals (OH hydroxyl groups) can rotate in the ice lattice. We note that the density of ice is less than the density of water, which indicates that water molecules are more tightly packed than the ice molecules.

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