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A primary purpose of testing and screening is to evaluate the vulnerability of potentially new cultivars to disease and insect pests and to other stresses imposed by the environment. The estimation of cultivar χ year and cultivar χ location interactions is one way of predicting genetic vulnerability of genotypes. So, among plant breeders, the problem of genetic vulnerability is not one of recent origin. Only the increased and widespread in­ terest in the problem is new. And with this growing interest there is an increasing awareness of the possible role of exotic germplasm in reducing genetic vulnerability.

1982). Heredity (submitted). Tomes, M. L. (1963). Bot. Gaz. 124, 180. Tomes, M. , and Quackenbush, F. W. (1958). Econ. Bot. 12, 256. Vallejos, C. E. (1979). In "Low Temperature Stress in Crop Plants" (J. ), p. 473. Academic Press, New York. Webb, R. , Stoner, Α. , and Gentile, A. G. (1971). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 96, 65. Williams, W. , Kennedy, G. , Yamamoto, R. , Thacker, J. , and Bordner, J. (1980). Science 207, 888. Yeager, A. , and Purinton, H. J. (1946). Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 48, 403.

T. (1972). D. Thesis, University of California, Davis. Zamir, D,, Tanksley, S. , and Jones, R. A. (1981). Theor. Appl. Genet. 59, 235. CHAPTER 2 EXOTIC GERMPLASM IN CEREAL CROP IMPROVEMENT William L. Brown Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. Des Moines, Iowa Interest in the use of exotic germplasm for the improvement of crop species, including cereals, increased dramatically following the Southern Corn Leaf Blight epidemic on maize (Zea mays) in the USA in 1969-70. S. maize yield of 15% nationwide and as much as 50% in some southern states (Tatum, 1971).

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