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By Bernard Williams

It is a quantity of philosophical reviews, focused on difficulties of non-public identification and lengthening to similar themes within the philosophy of brain and ethical philosophy.

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We saw earlier on that if what is in question is a real object, together with a purely extensional interpretation of the statement that it is not seen, there is evidently no difficulty at all. We then broached an intensional interpretation, and have been pursuing a complication that attended getting clearer about what was involved in intensional interpretations. Using a distinction we have made in the course of that, we may now consider the case of visualising an object - let us say a tree - where the idea that it is not seen by anyone is intensionally contained and is essential in the strongest sense: that is to say, the idea that it is not seen is essential to the imaginative project (it was such a project that Hylas was invited to undertake, presumably, in the original Berkeley argument).

Hence if utterances coming from a given body are to be taken as expressive of memories of the experiences of B, there should be some suitable causal link between the appropriate state of that body and the original happening of those experiences to B. One radical way of securing that condition in the imagined exchange case is to suppose, with Shoemaker,1 that the brains of A and of B are transposed. We may not need so radical a condition. Thus suppose it were possible to extract information from a man's brain and store it in a device while his brain was repaired, or even renewed, the information then being replaced: it would seem exaggerated to insist that the resultant man could not possibly have the memories he had before the operation.

The second is contrasted with this: that in which I visualise a world in which I am acting, moving around, seeing things, and so forth - a form of imagery involving, very often, kinaesthetic imagery of various sorts. This second sort is, of course, possible and frequent; in what I said earlier, I was not denying that I could be in my imagined scene, I was merely denying that I had to be. , certain things. But the expression 'imagining myself doing, etc/ could cover also a third possibility for imagery, which constitutes not really a distinct third kind, but a special application of the first: namely that of visualising from the outside a figure who is myself doing the things in question.

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