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By Jacques Rigo; Ekhard E Ziegler; Nestlé Nutrition Institute

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TEE ranged from 255 to 393 kJ/kg/day (61–94 kcal/kg/day). Four studies demonstrated higher rates of TEE in formula-fed than breast-fed infants in the first year of life, in the order of 12, 7, 6 and 3% at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age [17–20]. A prediction equation (equation 1) for TEE was developed based on longitudinal data on 76 healthy infants studied at 3-month intervals for the first 2 years of life [18]. 96). 6 weight (kg) SEE ϭ 109 (1) Energy Cost of Growth during Infancy During infancy, energy is required to support the substantial changes in body weight and composition.

Compared with the 1985 FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations, the 2004 FAO/WHO/UNU and 2002 IOM recommendations are ~12–20% lower during infancy. The 2004 FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations are on average 18% lower for boys and 20% lower for girls Ͻ7 years of age, and 12% lower for boys and 5% lower for girls 7–11 years of age. From 12 to 18 years of age, the requirements are 12% higher for boys and girls. The 2002 IOM recommendations are 8% lower for children Ͻ7 years of age, 2% lower for children 7–11 years of age, and 8% higher for children 12–18 years of age.

I think Dr. Pencharz will probably give us another example on where this could lead to. I am also impressed by your adaptation of the estimates of energy requirements by 10–20% which have a real impact in infancy. If we consider that high energy intakes and high growth rates in this period of life might have long-term consequences on overweight and obesity at later ages. The Codex Alimentarius is presently discussing a revision of the global infant formula standard and, based on much of what you have presented, considered altering the range of energy density in formula.

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