By Paul Chang
Nineteen Seventies South Korea is characterised via many because the "dark age for democracy." such a lot scholarship on South Korea's democracy stream and civil society has excited by the "student revolution" in 1960 and the big protest cycles within the Eighties which have been via Korea's transition to democracy in 1987. yet in his groundbreaking paintings of political and social heritage of Nineteen Seventies South Korea, Paul Chang highlights the significance of figuring out the emergence and evolution of the democracy circulation during this oft-ignored decade.
Protest Dialectics trips again to Seventies South Korea and gives readers with an in-depth realizing of the various occasions within the Nineteen Seventies that laid the foundation for the Nineteen Eighties democracy move and the formation of civil society this day. Chang indicates how the narrative of the Seventies as democracy's "dark age" obfuscates the real fabric and discursive advancements that grew to become the principles for the stream within the Nineteen Eighties which, in flip, cleared the path for the institutionalization of civil society after transition in 1987. To right for those oversights within the literature and to raised comprehend the origins of South Korea's shiny social flow region this ebook provides a accomplished research of the emergence and evolution of the democracy stream within the Seventies.
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Extra resources for Protest Dialectics: State Repression and South Korea's Democracy Movement, 1970-1979
In what amounted to a dizzying array of political moves, Park imperiously “cleared the road towards his lifelong presidency” by “undermining the power bases of all major DRP leaders” (Im 2011: 242). These steps set the stage for formal authoritarianism in 1972 as Park Chung Hee moved “incrementally but consistently” toward the Yusin Constitution (Kim B. K. 2011a: 30). The first step was to weaken the mainstream faction of the DRP that supported Kim Chongp’il, who had orchestrated the coup d’état in 1961 and was Park’s long-standing second in command.
Y. 2011: 425; Cumings 1997: 321). The “extraordinary” rewards (Katsiaficas 2012: 142) that South Korea would reap from its participation in the Vietnam War did not, however, preclude significant opposition from institutional politicians when Park Chung Hee submitted to the National Assembly the bill for dispatch of combat troops. When it came time to vote, legislators from the opposition parties boycotted the session, but Park’s Democratic Republican Party (DRP; Minju Konghwadang) occupied enough seats in the National Assembly to pass the bill anyway.
Park cited this “miracle of the Han” to justify his leadership because “he needed economic progress to defend his political base against those who regarded his seizure of power as illegitimate” (Vogel 1991: 51). Starting in 26 MOVEMENT CONTEXT 1969, however, the economy began to falter, partly because of a world recession sparked by growing concern over a global oil shortage, a problem that peaked in 1973 (Merrill 2007). S. 9 The combination of economic recession and rising inflation led to new American protectionist policies, including taxes on imports, which compromised Korea’s export-dependent economy.