By Mohammed N. Islam (auth.), Mohammed N. Islam (eds.)
I keep in mind vividly the ?rst time that I heard in regards to the ?ber ampli?er. at the moment, after all, it used to be the erbium-doped ?ber ampli?er, the predecessor of the Raman ampli?er that's the topic of this booklet. It was once an early morning in a forgotten 12 months in Murray Hill, New Jersey at certainly one of our Bell Labs per month study employees conferences. approximately twenty administrators and govt administrators of analysis corporations clustered round an extended desk within the enforcing government convention room. Arno Penzias, the vp of study, presided on the foot of the desk. every body who participated in these learn employees conferences will lengthy be mindful their tradition and surroundings. Arno could decide an arbitrary start line someplace round the desk, and the precise individual might head to front of the desk to provide a quick speak on “something new” in his or her examine quarter. This ?rst speaker might continually ?ddle helplessly with the controls embedded within the podium that managed the viewgraph projector, yet ultimately we might listen equipment grinding within the again room as a wide hidden reflect moved into position. we'd all wait quietly, arranging and selecting our personal viewgraphs from the piles that lay at the desk in entrance of each participant.
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Additional resources for Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 1: Physical Principles
For Raman ampliﬁers the N2 /(N2 − N1 ) term is always equal to one, whereas in EDFAs it is usually greater than one . In an EDFA this term is only equal to one for an ampliﬁer fully inverted through the entire length of the gain ﬁber. On the other hand, since Raman ampliﬁers use long ﬁber lengths, the small fraction of passive loss of the gain ﬁber needs to be added to the noise ﬁgure. 2 dB have been reported . Finally, a fourth source of noise arises from the phonon-stimulated optical noise created when wavelength signals being ampliﬁed reside spectrally close to pump the wavelengths used for ampliﬁcation.
Islam As can be seen from the preceding examples, there are some key advantages of using DRAs. First is the improvement in noise ﬁgure over discrete ampliﬁers. Thus lower signal powers can be used, a higher loss can be tolerated, or a longer transmission distance can be used between regenerators. A second advantage is a more uniform gain along the length of the ﬁber. This gives rise to better SNR performance and reduced nonlinear penalty. It is also better for higher bit rates and soliton transmission.
The use of strictly counterpropagating pump geometry prevents pump ﬂuctuations from coupling to the signals. Output powers in excess of +23 dBm are generated while maintaining very good analogue signal performance (carrier-to-noise ratio CNR > 49 dB, composite second-order CSO < −60 dBc, and a composite triple beat CTB < −68 dBc). As an example of the use of this ampliﬁer, a repeaterless, WDM transmission system operating in the 1310 nm wavelength window was demonstrated by means of discrete Raman ﬁber ampliﬁers .