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By Henriette Litta

Within the context of big environmental difficulties in Southeast Asia, the international locations within the area have determined – at the very least in a few situations – to create regimes to resolve those difficulties together. This empirical remark is unbelievable, given the Southeast Asian nations’ basic reluctance to nearby cooperation, the governance and budgetary constraints which are normal for constructing nations and the massive heterogeneity of the concerned international locations by way of environmental vulnerability, fiscal ability and hegemonic strength. This publication analyzes the production and effectiveness of 2 environmental regimes, one on transboundary haze pollutants and a moment on source administration of the Mekong. it will likely be proven that regime construction is intensely not easy and methods to beat conflicting actor constellations are commonly missing.

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Table 4: Human Development Index for Southeast Asia 2009 Country Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Viet Nam Iceland [highest] United States Germany Sierra Leone [lowest] Index 30 131 107 130 63 132 90 25 78 105 1 12 22 177 Source: UNDP 2009, 229-232. Furthermore, there is another group of countries that are in an early stage of development and lack basic provisions for life for parts of the population (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Viet Nam). These extremely diverging levels of economic development hinder the prospects of cooperation.

Regimes in the form of agreements are more difficult to grasp. Here, it is important to analyze the agreement text and trace forms of implementation of the listed provisions. In many cases, there is at least some form of material organization like a desk office. This is the case for the Disaster Management and the Haze Agreements, not so for the Conservation Agreement. The ASEAN Agreement on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources is the oldest environmental agreement in the region. Its goal is to maintain essential ecological processes, life-support systems, preserve genetic diversity, and ensure the sustainable utilization of living resources.

1993, 17). Every regime has an effect. In the worst case, regimes can have negative effects (Levy et al. 1993, 397). Four different effects of regimes can be distinguished: internal and external as well as direct and indirect effects (Mitchell 2002a, 508). Internal, or intended, effects refer to effects that occur inside the issue area in which they are embedded. They are part of the regime strategy. External, or unintended, effects are externalities that are unforeseen. External effects can be of substantial importance for regime performance.

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