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By Alexander S. Spirin (auth.)

This ebook is predicated on a complicated process lectures on ribosome constitution and protein biosynthesis that I supply on the Moscow country collage. those lectures were a part of a common path on molecular biology for nearly 3 many years, and so they have gone through massive evolution as wisdom has been seasoned­ gressing during this box. The development keeps, and readers may be ready that a few proof, statements, and ideas incorporated within the e-book will be incomplete or out­ of-date. at least, this is often essentially a textbook, yet now not a entire evaluation. It presents a history of data and present principles within the box and offers ex­ amples of observations and their interpretations. I needless to say a few interpre­ tations and generalizations can be tentative or disputable, yet i am hoping that this can stimulate pondering and discussing larger than if I left white spots. The booklet has a prototype: it really is my monograph "Ribosome constitution and seasoned­ tein Biosynthesis" released through the Benjamin/Cummings Publishing corporation, Menlo Park, California, in 1986. the following i've got primarily saved the previous order of pre­ sentation ofthe issues and the subdivision into chapters. The contents ofthe chap­ ters, despite the fact that, were considerably revised and supplemented. The newly writ­ ten chapters on translational regulate in prokaryotes (Chapter sixteen) and eukaryotes (Chapter 17) are added.

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D. (1966) Polynucleotide synthesis and the genetic code, Cold Spring Har- bor Symp. Quant. 31:39-49. Nirenberg, M. , Jones, O. , Clark, B. F. , Sly, W. , and Pestka, S. (1963) On the coding of genetic information, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. BioI. 28:549-557. Nirenberg, M. , and Leder, P. (1964) RNA codewords and protein synthesis: The effect of trinucleotides upon the binding of sRNA to ribosomes, SCience 145:1399-1407. Nirenberg, M. , and Matthaei, J. H. (1961) The dependence of cell-free protein synthesis in E.

1). All class I ARSases catalyze the coupling of amino acids to the 2' -position of the ribose of the 3' -terminal adenosine residue. TyrRS and CysRS, however, may catalyze the reaction with both the 2'- and the 3'-hydroxyl groups. At same time class II synthetases catalyze the reaction of the 3' -hydro:lcyl with the amino acid residue; the only exception among them is PheRS which ligates the amino acid to the 2' -position oftRNA. This is of no great importance to the subsequent fate of the aminoacyl-tRNA formed because in aqueous solution the aminoacyl residue spontaneously migrates between the 2'- and 3'-positions (through the formation of a 2', 3'-derivative), and eventually the two forms are in equilibrium.

The structure ofthe anticodon loop is particularly interesting (Fig. 6); three anticodon bases and two subsequent bases adjacent to the anticodon from the 3'side are stacked with each other and form a single-stranded, right-handed helix; the first base of the anticodon is located at the top of the helix, and the groups capable of forming hydrogen bonds of all three anticodon bases are exposed outward. Such an orientation of the anticodon bases is extremely important for interaction with the mRNA codon.

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