By Babcock Bryan
Israelite competition calendar texts (Exod 23; 34; Lev 23; Num 28 29; Deut sixteen; and Ezek forty five) percentage many positive factors; in spite of the fact that, there also are modifications. a number of the most-often-cited transformations are the subsequent: competition dates, competition destinations, date of the hot yr, competition timing, and pageant names. students have explored those differences, and plenty of have concluded that various assets (authors/redactors) wrote a number of the calendars at varied occasions in Israelite background. students use those dissimilarities to argue that Lev 23 used to be written within the exilic or postexilic period. Babcock deals a brand new translation and research of a second-millennium B.C. multimonth ritual calendar textual content from Emar (Emar 446) to problem the overdue relationship of Lev 23. Babcock argues that Lev 23 preserves an early (2nd-millennium) West Semitic ritual culture.
Building at the fresh paintings of Klingbeil and Sparks, this e-book offers a brand new comparative technique for exploring power textual relationships. Babcock investigates the attributes of sacred ritual in the course of the lens of sacred time, sacred area and flow, sacred items, ritual members, and formality sound. the writer starts off with a learn of historical close to japanese pageant texts from the third millennium during the 1st millennium. This research makes a speciality of competition cycles, universal competition attributes, and the position of time and area in ritual. Babcock then strikes directly to an intertextual learn of biblical pageant texts prior to finishing an intensive research of either Lev 23 and Emar 446. the result's a compelling argument that Lev 23 preserves an early West Semitic competition culture and doesn't date to the exilic period refuting the scholarly consensus.
This illuminating studying stands as a version for destiny study within the box of formality and comparative textual stories.
Read Online or Download Sacred Ritual: A Study of the West Semitic Ritual Calendars in Leviticus 23 and the Akkadian Text Emar 446 PDF
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Extra resources for Sacred Ritual: A Study of the West Semitic Ritual Calendars in Leviticus 23 and the Akkadian Text Emar 446
22 The Mari text linking amuwatu with the nabrû Festival further supports this meaning. The primary nabrû Festival occurred in the early winter, perhaps with the reading of omens for the upcoming agricultural season. At several locations, it appears that some portions of the ritual were repeated in later months. E. 23 Kinūnu Festival Several locations attest the winter kinūnu Festival. The kinūnu, or brazier, was a ceremonial torch often used in temple-lighting ceremonies. The festival, by the same name, was held during the winter months (months 7–10).
While the festival occurred at multiple locations, the timing and duration was unique to each. Uruk texts convey Akītu Festival rites in the 8th month, while Nippur and Uruk hold the festival at the full moon of the 4th and 12th months. The festival has pre-Sargonic textual evidence at both Ur and Nippur. 19 Our discussion of the Akītu Festival only encompasses the adoption of the festival in cultures up to the middle of the 2nd millennium. The festival has a long history beyond this period including significant textual representation at Aššur in the Middle Assyrian period.
41) depict a dabḥu- 33. Translation following Pardee, Ritual and Cult, 41–44. Also discussed in Loren R. Fischer, “A New Ritual Calendar from Ugarit,” HTR 63 (1970): 485–86. 34. Pardee, Ritual and Cult, 63–64. , 63. De Moor, Seasonal Patterns, 59. 37 Levine interprets this ceremony as occurring on the 5th day of the month of Raʾšu yêni and not on the fifth day of the festival. If Levine is correct, then the festival text includes three named festivals on the following days of the month—Day 1; Days 5–7; and Days 13–14.