By Joseph Needham
Technological know-how and Civilisation in China quantity V half 6 is the 1st of the 3 elements facing the humanities of warfare in historical and medieval China. (Part 7--on gunpowder and all features of explosive weapons--has already been released, whereas half 8--on cavalry innovations and signaling--is nonetheless in preparation.) the current quantity opens with an advent on chinese language attitudes to struggle ordinarily. 4 significant sections keep on with: at the making and use of straightforward bows; at the crossbow, the normal weapon of the Han armies, and its creation to the Western international; at the pre-gunpowder kinds of artillery, together with the discovery of the trebuchet; and at the paintings of siege war during which the Mohists have been fairly . there's a bargain of fabric on siege-warfare to be had, and this ultimate part is a considerable one, protecting all points intimately.
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Additional resources for Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology; Part 6, Military Technology: Missiles and Sieges
77-8. On the Taoist attitude to technology cf. Vo!. 2, pp. [22-4. b An interesting comparison of Western and Chinese strategic thought was made by Scott Boorman, and some of his concepts have been used here (Boorman ([), pp. 23-5, 2Il). The concept ofa 'duel·like war' deeply influenced Western thought. Even in a book analysing ancient and 'primitive' wars throughout the world, the author stated that 'the objective of the war must be the defeat of a people' (Turney-High ([), p. (03), but this opinion needs to be revised in the light of more recent research, Otterbein ( I).
The Shih Chi contains many cases which are variations on the same theme. One may find there a description of the famous suicide of the great poet Chhii Yiian (ch. 84), and a well-known description of how by his extreme benevolence, Wu Tzu created in his soldiers the wish to sacrifice their lives for him (ch. 65; Ir. Griflith (I), pp. 71-3)' In the Shih Chi one military trick actually involving suicide is given. During a war between Wu and Yiieh, once the Yiieh soldiers had started an attack, three of their party came to the Wu lines and with a great shout cut off their heads.
His efforts to satisfy his needs may be accepted up to a point. Ever since the - 5th century, therefore, Chinese military and political thought developed a strong tendency towards limiting the use of force and war between a On negative attitudes to the use afforce see: Han Shih Wai Chuan, ch. 2, parts 24, 31, pp. 14a, 19a; tr. Hightower (3), pp. 64, 71; see also Lin Yutang (3), ch. 3, pp. 77-8. On the Taoist attitude to technology cf. Vo!. 2, pp. [22-4. b An interesting comparison of Western and Chinese strategic thought was made by Scott Boorman, and some of his concepts have been used here (Boorman ([), pp.