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By Alan F. Dixson

Comparative analyses of the anatomy, reproductive body structure, and behavior of extant primates and different mammals can supply very important insights into the origins of human sexual behaviour, permitting us to reconstruct the origins of human mating platforms, the evolution of sexual acceptance, styles of mate selection, and copulatory behaviour. Sexual choice and the Origins of Human Mating Systems offers a contemporary synthesis of analysis at the evolution of human mating platforms, bringing jointly paintings on reproductive body structure, behavioural biology, anthropology, primatology, palaeontology, evolutionary psychology, and sexological study. The method taken is surely cross-disciplinary in scope, and offers a desirable account of the consequences of sexual choice upon human evolution within the gentle of the most recent advances within the box.

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Lar (Palombit 1994; Reichard 1995). The genetic consequences of such behaviour in terms of offspring sired by males outside the family group are unknown, as no detailed DNA typing study of wild gibbon groups has yet been reported. 95 Gorilla g. 66 G. g. 04 Dixson et al. (1982) Dahl, Gould, and Nadler (1993) Schultz (1938); Dixson and Mundy (1994) Dixson and Anderson (2004) and unpublished data Hall-Craggs (1962); Dahl (unpublished data) Dahl (unpublished data) 33 rates are likely to be very low and that sperm competition has had little effect upon the evolution of reproductive physiology in gibbons.

2. 4. ○ = Homo; ◊= Gorilla (the western lowland gorilla is plotted separately and falls below the mountain gorilla on the graph); ‪ = Pongo (two species plotted); ∆ = Pan (two species plotted). MAKING HOLES IN THE DARK extensive data on humans compare with those for the apes? 3, for comparison with Homo sapiens. Among the smaller, pair-forming (monogamous) gibbons, adequate data on testes size and body weight are only available for two species (Hylobates lar and H. moloch). They have small testes in relation to body weight, as originally reported by Harcourt et al.

E. peri-ovulatory) period of the ovarian cycle. For sperm competition to occur at all, at least two males must mate with the same female during this fertile period. The potential ‘window of opportunity’ for sperm competition is quite narrow in primates, including human beings. We shall return to this important problem in later chapters. ’ However, there was insufficient evidence to discriminate between monogamy and polygyny as contributory factors in the evolution of human testes sizes. In practice, both types of mating system occur in present day (or recent) human societies; thus 74 per cent of the 185 societies examined by Ford and Beach (1951) engage in polygynous marriages.

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