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By Julia Ortiz-Griffin

В ходе Реконкисты было создано в 1095 графство Португалия, в 1139 году (официально в 1143 году) ставшее независимым королевством. С XV в. началась колониальная экспансия Португалии; наивысшего расцвета португальская колониальная империя достигла в 1-й пол. XVI в. В 1581—1640 была подвластна Испании.
В 1492 объединившееся королевство Арагон и Кастилия-Испания взяло последний оплот мавров — Гранаду. В этот же период Испания отправляет свои корабли в Новый Свет, завоёвывает огромные колонии. В Европе в правление императора Карла V Габсбурга (1516-56 гг.) Испания является центром Священной Римской империи и крупнейшим государством, опорой Католической церкви в борьбе с начавшейся Реформацией. Поражение испанского флота ("Непобедимой армады ") в 1588, проигрыш войны с Англией в 1607 и потеря нидерландских провинций в 1609 ознаменовали конец влияния в Европе.
Очень ценныи спровочник-включает обзорные статьи, карты,индексы,таблицы.

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Extra resources for Spain and Portugal: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present

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This was particularly true for Spain, which became the admira- 23 24 Spain and Portugal tion and model of all Europe. By the 18th century, however, the South American mines might still, on occasion, yield treasure trove, but in a larger sense the Golden Age of Iberia (Siglo de Oro) was over. Even today Spaniards unhesitatingly proclaim Miguel de Cervantes, creator of the immortal Don Quixote, their greatest literary figure. Cervantes was but one of a galaxy of literary geniuses that included Mateo Alemán, master of the picaresque genre; the Renaissance poets Juan Boscán and Garcilaso de la Vega; the baroque poets Luis de Góngora and Francisco de Quevedo; and the mystically oriented Juan de la Cruz (St.

Spaniards, barely recovered from their own liberation struggle, now found themselves conscripted to repress the liberation movements overseas. Many of them lacked any real sympathy with the inhabitants of those distant lands yet were reluctant to face death by bullet or tropical disease in a meaningless conflict. In 1820 military discontent and the rising toll of the colonial wars combined to generate a mutiny among soldiers at Cádiz who were about to embark for South America. Their commander, Colonel Rafael del Riego, led them on a march toward Madrid that was joined by other rebellious units.

By early summer 1898 an American expedition had landed in Cuba and, ignoring Havana, marched across the island brushing aside halfhearted resistance. After a fierce assault on the landward defenses of Santiago, the Americans captured the city. S. expeditionary force had meanwhile sailed across the Pacific, captured the Marianas on the way, and joined forces with the American ships that had annihilated the Spanish vessels in Manila Bay. Already besieged by Filipino rebels, the defenders of Manila quickly surrendered.

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