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By Andrew F. Bennett (auth.), Robert J. Adler, Peter Müller, Boris L. Rozovskii (eds.)

The learn of the sea is sort of as previous because the historical past of mankind itself. whilst the 1st seafarers set out of their primitive ships they'd to appreciate, as top they can, tides and currents, eddies and vortices, for lack of expertise usually ended in lack of stay. those primitive oceanographers have been, after all, essentially statisticians. They accrued what empirical information they can, and handed it down, ini­ tially through observe of mouth, to their descendants. facts assortment persisted through the millenia, and even if info bases grew to become better, extra re­ responsible, and higher codified, it was once not likely till unusually lately that mankind started to try and comprehend the physics at the back of those info, and, almost immediately afterwards, to try to version it. the elemental modelling instrument of actual oceanography is, this present day, the partial differential equation. by some means, all of us 'know" that if in basic terms shall we locate the best set of equations, with the correct preliminary and boundary stipulations, then shall we clear up the mysteries of ocean dynamics as soon as and for all.

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11) but with considerably more analytical detail. 14) is of greater interest here. 14) is equal to unity. Thus, the limit can only vanish if T > 0. An example is helpful. 16) 0, provided Aj IT;; 1 ~ sufficiently rapidly for each j ~ n, as n ~ 00. That is, the Lindeberg condition holds if each step 28 Andrew F. Bennett makes a vanishingly small contribution to the total variance of the random walk, as the number of steps becomes infinite.

Because of the fact that the spectral densities Ei,j(W, . ) vanish near the origin, the stream function ¢(t, x) can be realized as a stationary and homogeneous mean zero Gaussian field. A. A. A. Molchanov ~(1/2) &00 (w,k ) -_ -ik 1,1 (w,k ) -_ ~(1/2) ikl E 2,1 (w,k ) 2 E and: ~(1/2) &e(w,k) -_ -ik 1,2 (w,k ) -_ ~(1/2) ikl E 2,2 (w,k ) . 2 E Since the stream function is a stationary and homogeneous mean zero Gaussian scalar field one can start the analysis and the simulations from its own spectral representation: rfJ(t,x)= rre JIR JIR2 i (wt+ k .

For further illustration, consider a self-similar turbulent flow like a plume or jet in which the Lagrangian velocity increases exponentially with time. No dynamical basis for this hypothetical flow is offered here. Suppose the Lagrangian velocity decorrelation time has the finite value T. The displacement at time t may be roughly approximated by an un correlated random walk of n = tiT steps, where the variance of the nth step an is ex en. It is easily shown that (a~)a-;;:-2 ---* 1 as n ---* 00, where a-~ is the walk variance after n steps.

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