By Theodoros Varzakas, Athanasios Labropoulos, Stylianos Anestis
Content material: Ch. 1. Sweeteners commonly -- ch. 2. Chemistry and practical homes of carbohydrates and sugars (monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides) -- ch. three. Sugar alcohols (polyols) -- ch. four. Low calorie nonnutritive sweeteners -- ch. five. Honey -- ch. 6. Syrups -- ch. 7. different sweeteners -- ch. eight. software of sweeteners in foods and drinks (bakery, confectionery, dairy items, puddings, fruit items, greens, drinks, recreation beverages, tough sweets, loukoumia, marmalades, jams, jellies, baked items, sorbet) -- ch. nine. qc of sweeteners : creation, dealing with, and garage -- ch. 10. european, united states, and 3rd global kingdom laws and jap laws -- ch. eleven. dietary and healthiness features of sweeteners -- ch. 12. Genetically transformed herbicide-tolerant vegetation and sugar beet : environmental and wellbeing and fitness issues -- ch. thirteen. Bulking and fat-replacing brokers -- ch. 14. hazard evaluation of sweeteners used as nutrition ingredients
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Extra info for Sweeteners : nutritional aspects, applications, and production technology
Starch is a polymer of d-glucose. Most starch granules are composed of a mixture of two polymer forms: a linear fraction (amylose) and a highly branched fraction (amylopectin). The ratio of amylose and amylopectin in starch sources varies depending on the starch origin, but typical values are 20%–30% for amylose and 70%–80% for amylopectin. Variations in structure and properties of starch may be associated with different species, growth conditions, environments, and genetic mutations of plants.
13 Structure of sucrose (Haworth type). 1 Relative Sweetness of Various Sugars and Sugar Alcohols to Sucrose Sugar/Sugar Alcohol Relative Sweetness Fructose Invert sugar Xylitol Sucrose Glucose Maltitol Sorbitol Mannitol Lactitol Maltose Galactose Lactose 170 130 85–120 100 75 50–90 50 40 30–40 30 30 15 Source: Gaman, P. M. and Sherrington, K. , The Science of Food. , Polyols: Chemistry and Application, AVI Publishing, Westport, CT, 1982. lactose as the least sweet sugar. 14 shows a comparison of common hexoses with sucrose.
Lactose as the least sweet sugar. 14 shows a comparison of common hexoses with sucrose. Only fructose is above the line while dulcin is a noncarbohydrate sweetener (Meyer 1987; Penfield and Campbell 1990). Sucrose is used in many food product applications, either crystalline or as a refined aqueous solution known as liquid sugar. It can also be found as syrup in which sucrose is partly inverted to glucose and fructose. These syrups can be prepared with a higher concentration of solids since fructose has a very high solubility, and glucose does not readily crystallize.