By John K. Fairbank
This can be the 1st of 2 volumes during this significant Cambridge historical past facing the decline of the Ch'ing empire. It opens with a survey of the Ch'ing empire in China and internal Asia at its top, in approximately 1800. glossy China's historical past starts off with the tactics recorded the following of monetary development, social switch and the deterioration of critical govt inside of China. members to this quantity research the advanced interaction of international invasion, family uprising and Ch'ing decline and recovery. designated reference is made to the Peking management, the Canton alternate and the early treaty method, the Taiping, Nien and different rebellions, and the dynasty's survival in uneasy cooperation with the British, Russian, French, American and different invaders. each one bankruptcy is written by way of a consultant from the overseas neighborhood of sinological students. the various debts holiday new floor; all are according to clean study. This quantity has been designed either to be consulted as a piece of reference and to be learn always. No wisdom of chinese language is important; for readers with chinese language, right names and phrases are pointed out with their characters within the thesaurus, and entire references to chinese language, jap and different works are given within the bibliographies. a variety of maps illustrate the textual content, and there are a bibliographical essays describing the resource fabrics on which each and every author's account relies.
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Extra info for The Cambridge History of China: Volume 10, Late Ch'ing 1800-1911, Part 1
At the territorial levels of administration below them - in the circuits or tao consisting of two or more prefectures (/»), which in turn consisted of two or more counties (hsien), and in the fifteen hundred or so counties or similar bodies at the lowest level - the official posts were held almost entirely by Chinese. In the military branch, remnants of the Ming garrisons (wet and so) had been made the original nuclei under the Ch'ing of the ' green battalions ' or Army of the Green Standard (lu-jing), stationed in small posts all over the country.
Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 FOREIGN RELATIONS 31 The expeditions sent out by Hung-wu's vigorous successor, Yung-lo, were headed mainly by eunuchs who thus were personal representatives of the emperor, rather than of his government. These totalled forty-eight missions in the course of twenty-two years. They carried costly gifts to the tributary rulers but, at the same time, brought an imposing naval force and offered protection. 14 The grand design by which the Son of Heaven in China generously admitted non-Chinese to the cultured order of civilization had been further developed by the Ch'ing dynasty.
By 1800 the big households (ta-hu) of the Chinese countryside may have maintained some sort of balance between conscientious leadership of the community and selfish family-centred exploitation of tenants; but the proportions of this balance are stiJl another unresolved question. Tenancy is known to have been less in the generally less productive farming areas of north and north-west China where less surplus crop could be grown, harvested, transported or marketed to urban consumers. But this may be viewed as a picture of poverty so great that landlordism could not be made to pay.