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By John K. Fairbank, Kwang-Ching Liu

This can be the second one of 2 volumes during this significant Cambridge historical past facing the slow decline of the Ch'ing empire in China (the first was once quantity 10). quantity eleven surveys the patience and deterioration of the previous order in China throughout the overdue 19th century, and the profound stirring in the course of that interval, which ended in China's nice twentieth-century revolution. The members concentrate on advertisement and technological development, overseas kin, the stimulation of chinese language highbrow lifestyles via the surface international, and armed forces triumphs and mess ups. They exhibit that the results of the accelerating alterations have been to fragment the previous ruling category and the traditional monarchy, ultimately bringing the chinese language humans nose to nose with the demanding situations of the hot century. For readers with chinese language, right names and phrases are pointed out with their characters within the thesaurus, and entire references to chinese language, jap and different works are given within the bibliographies.

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Additional resources for The Cambridge History of China: Volume 11, Late Ch'ing, 1800-1911, Part 2 (The Cambridge History of China)

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The Kiangnan area, where cotton handicrafts were concentrated, absorbed annually about 10 per cent of yarn imports with large fluctuations from year to year. It is evident that the principal markets for imported machine-spun yarn were those regions where cotton growing and handicrafts were least developed. Cheap imported yarn made possible the economical development of handicraft weaving in districts which previously had purchased cloth or relatively expensive raw cotton from Kiangnan or Hupei.

These were gradually supplemented by Chinese silver dollars. Until 1933, b° t r l t n c dollar and the tael were used as units of account. 72 tads. 259 . 00 Source: Calculated from Wang Ching-yu, comp. Cbung-kuo cbin-tai kung-yeb sbib t%u-liao, ti-erb-cbi, iS)j-ifi4 materials on the history of modern industry in China, 2nd collection, 1895-1914), 1. 2-13. Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 Average capital (Ch. 873 . 758 a nien (Source z 0 32 ECONOMIC TRENDS, 1 8 7 0 - 1 9 1 1 which, prior to 1902, required 30 to 50 per cent of the capital in any mining venture to be provided by Chinese investors.

Machinery imports continued to grow after 1908, but the number of new enterprises opened fell sharply until the much larger industrialization spurt of 1918-22. These trends perhaps suggest increased capital investment in the privileged establishedfirmscombined with an increasing difficulty in entering the limited market for new firms. They may also reflect a shift of venture capital to provincial railway Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 MODERN 35 INDUSTRY projects inspired by the nationalist 'rights recovery' activities of the last years of the dynasty.

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