By Dorothy S. Zinberg (auth.), Dorothy S. Zinberg (eds.)
This selection of papers used to be written for a NATO complicated examine Workshop held at Harvard college in March 1990. The identify, "The altering collage and the schooling of Scientists and Engineers: a world Workshop," wide because it is, doesn't express the sweep of information, infonnation, evaluations, and recommendations for destiny examine and coverage offerings that have been crowded into two-and-a-half days of fonnal displays, mealtime discussions, and teatime chats. The suggestion for the workshop grew out of a study undertaking I had performed that explored the rules governing the schooling of international technology and engineering scholars (S&Es) in numerous industrialized international locations, and of 2 nations that ship huge numbers of S&E scholars in a foreign country - the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Japan (see bankruptcy 7). In examine visits to those nations in addition to to France, the uk, West Gennany, and in the usa, i used to be struck by means of the similarity of concerns that have been raised. One used to be the worry that there wouldn't be adequate well-trained scientists and engineers to satisfy the consistently expanding call for for them. executive officers, industrialists, and educators again and again under pressure well-educated and -motivated workforce used to be crucial for his or her economies, nationwide protection, and for society as a complete. lots of these interviewed pointed out that universities are present process quick, systemic adjustments as governments and are calling on them to supply human assets and highbrow capital.
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Extra resources for The Changing University: How Increased Demand for Scientists and Technology is Transforming Academic Institutions Internationally
It was a system that, in its clear delineation between peer-group science (pure science, Royal Society science) and applied science (engineering and technology) relegated the latter to a lesser rank. By the late 1960s, the classic university model was fading away. The universities had won crucial support from the egalitarian politicians who dominated the government then. The universities were willing to expand two or three times over to accommodate the bright children of the middle and working classes.
New powers enabled the UFC to remove funding from specific departments of universities, and consequently a number were closed down, among them departments of philosophy, classics, and the like. Tenure was abolished for any new appointment, though it was retained by those who were neither promoted nor changed jobs. The universities faced a difficult choice: to become much more dependent on private sources of money, including fees from overseas students (and probably, soon, fees from home students also), or to accept the intervention of a government bent on making them respond to industrial and commercial needs in exchange for public funds.
In those fields, companies want freedom of action. Universities, whether faculty or administration, have really only one interest, and that is to get as much money as possible from licensing patents. These differences constitute a real impediment to cooperation in important cases and need to be discussed. I propose a university patent policy that is flexible enough to deal with the policies and practices that are nonnal in the industrial sectors interested in a particular invention. A Double Standard?