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The maximum practical length is about 40 m. Instead of full helices, helicoid ribbons or just paddles at distinct distances can be used as forwarding elements. The advantage of the latter two, to a certain extent, is their mixing and even crushing and grinding ability, but this is a disadvantage when conveying shape-sensitive material such as flakes. These types of apparatus can be charged or discharged at any place. If using hollow shafts and, for example, jacketed casings for circulating hot fluids or steam, closed screw conveyors can be converted to heating and drying devices, like the "Schnecke(n)"-type meal desolventizer/dryers of the early 42 EDIBLE OILS AND FATS continuous basket-type extractors or continuous fish cookers/mashers.

Inorganic and organic scavenging agents, which inactivate transition and other metal ions in the form of inclusion compounds (chelates), also give some relief (Fig. 7, B2). Removal of metal compounds still seems to be the best proposition for protecting final quality. Citric, ascorbic and lactic acids and (disodium) ethylene diamine tetra-acetate (EDTA) are effective metal scavenging or sequestering agents. These compounds are also the so-called "synergists", as used in combination with the true antioxidants, strengthen­ ing their primary radical-catching action.

A. Hydrolysis Hydrolysis can affect all acylglycerols, sterol esters, sterol glucosides, ester waxes, tocopherol esters and esterified chlorophylls. The reaction requires an aqueous medium and usually a catalyst. The enzyme lipase acts as a biochemical catalyst, whereas mainly mineral acids or bleaching earth serve as chemical catalysts for the hydrolysis. If short-chain hydroxy fatty acids are cleaved in an acid or neutral medium, as is the case during deodorization of coconut and palm kernel oils, these acids can secondarily cyclize to lactones, some of which are important flavour carriers for butter and margarines.

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