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By K. Venkataraman

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5. This is the same form as is shown in hydrolysis reactions, the pH region of maximum stability being that recommended by Stephen 4 for stabilization of dye powders. Reactions with thiol groups in wool will produce much the same situation as the reaction with hydroxyl groups in cellulose, except that the bonds will be less stable. On the other hand, reaction with amino groups in wool or nylon would generally be expected to give rise to dye-fiber bonds resistant to acid or alkali as a result of the strong deactivating effect of the nitrogen atom.

McGregor, J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 81, 393 (1965). (56) 18 I. D. RATTEE in which Ds,Df are the diffusion coefficients in the solution and fiber phases; Vs, Vf are the corresponding concentration gradients. , the hydrodynamic boundary layer, is thin so that Vs tend to be large. These conditions, if they apply, mean that the rate-controlling process will be the flux in the fiber phase. These conditions are rarely met in practical dyeing machines, however, and are difficult to approach even in experimental conditions.

V. Use of Reaction Catalysts Among the reactive dyes, fixing by nucleophilic substitutionelimination mechanisms, the most favored leaving group is chlorine. The methoxy group has also been used. However, in systems of this kind, much higher reactivity can be achieved by using a more electronegative group such as —NR 3 + . This brings some stability and solubility problems when the group is incorporated into the dyestuff at the manufacturing stage, but these can be readily overcome to open up the possibility of many interesting dyes.

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